weekly 8 - Chapter 9: Mesopotamia and the Eastern...

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Chapter 9: Mesopotamia and the Eastern Mediterranean World 1. Origins (5500-3000BC): 5800 BC 100s small farming villages plains n.mesopotamia trade concentrated small/elite-key living centers along water routes (esp pottery) -theories: Persian Gulf-late ice age=large river estuary, 1.sea levels rose 15kya coastal, riverside marshes w/ fish/plants possible 1 st experiment growing cereal grains -canals-divert flood from Tigris/Euphrates to field/drain away=prevent salt buildup in soil, natural waterways=higher crop yields, small rural located around larger town, 2500- 4000 pop= ‘Ubaid culture settlements-substantial buildings/alleyways/courtyards, kin tie -interdependence-canal digging=political/socical leadership, silt clearing-only by communal efforts, distinctive social changes from more-efficient systems 4 producing food essential in delta, surpluses of one food-redistributed by trade network -Eridu: rapidly growing town-mud-brick temple, mud-brick houses around, craftsworkers lived short distance fm elite clustered around temple (180 m 2 )-large w/ alters 2. The 1 st Cities : Uruk-began small-absorb pop nearby villages, 617 acres, densely pack houses (divided into different kin groups or artisans lived near each other) /alleyways/courtyards, satellite villages provided grain/fish/meat 2 urban pop. 3. Writing and Metallurgy : appeared as Uruk/other cities grew, writing 1 st , metal 2 nd a)writing-long b4 Sumerians just after food production-developed into cuneiform signs only scribes read @ 1 st 4 administrative matters (lists/inventories) ->creative expression b)metallurgy-Sumerians homeland=no metal-import copper/gold/other ores 3500BC, lead tin alloying (2000BC)->widespread bronze artifacts-farming, tougher, > durable, new bronze-edge weapons->war 2 political ends -metal/wood-tipped plow drag by ox-dig deeper than hoes-develop as irrigation ag 4. Sumerian Civilization (3100-2334BC): new human era-economic/political/social
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2008 for the course ANTH 151 taught by Professor Sheppard during the Fall '07 term at Hawaii.

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weekly 8 - Chapter 9: Mesopotamia and the Eastern...

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