Chapter 13: Highland Mesoamerica
1.Rise of the Highland Civilization:Valley Oaxaca (2000-500BC)
: warm/semiarid valley
Oaxaca-Zapotec people. 2000BC-maize/bean ag-dozens small villages/hamlets. Earliest farming
O+,exp slopes cuz trade, 1300->San Jose Mogote-junct 3 valleys-
thatched houses, conch shell trumpets/turtle shell drums, priests/officals-control labor/food
: 900BC-hill/pop=5k, major state->150BC, elaborate-
palaces/temples/plazas, 15 subdivisions, sm houses stone terraces, rulers/families lived complex
buildings on Main Plaza, height power-200BC-rivaled Teotihuacan->traded.
3.Valley of Mexico:Teotihuacan(200BC-AD750)
: 600 BC-chiefdom series ruled, 5 cent later-
2(Cuicuilco, Teotihuacan) battle top, volcano-bury-cuicuilco, Teotihuacan-voluntary/forced
immigration?military conquest, serve artisanship/labor/army-pop similar w.Asia/China, trade-
green obsidian 4 tropical products, food fm cultivation valley soil, swamp gardens, pilgrimage,
sacred city->symbolic importance, community grew generations accord long-term master plan-
>600pyramids/500workshops/marketplace/2,000appt complex/plazas->grid, city grouped wards-
kin/commercial, standardized walled residence compounds (barrios). Sacred Cave- under
Pyramid Sun=entryway->underworld, powerful myth/line=setting sun->calendar dates-
>city=symbolic landscape commemorating creation->gods. Human sacrifice-assc w/ feathered
serpent(storm god)/movements Venus, impact=economic/ideaological/cultural not political.
AD650-ideaology->militaristic, end-AD750-Ciudadela(axis earth rotated on)attacked-temples
): Teotihuacan collapse-people out, sm Toltecs: various tribal groups,
control much Mexico, 1000-Toltec lords imposing pyramids, 2 ball courts, Spanish
Conquistadors-learned another version legend creation.
:political vacuum-Valley Mexico-Mexica(Azteca) fm
Aztlan->god guide Huitzilopochtli-rec Spanyards, fierce/ruthless warriors-mercanaries
Tezozomoc-death 1426-Aztec Itzcoatl-attack Tepanecs->masters, burn histories.