Chapter 4 - AR220 Chapter 4 Bone Biology and Variation Synostosis When any two bony elements fuse together Factors of variation Ontogeny(growth Observed

Chapter 4 - AR220 Chapter 4 Bone Biology and Variation...

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AR220 Chapter 4 Bone Biology and Variation Synostosis: When any two bony elements fuse together Factors of variation: Ontogeny (growth): Observed along the continuum of growth between fetus and adult. This variation can be used by osteologists in determining the age at death from skeletal remains Variations in sex: Sexually dimorphic (female bones and teeth relatively smaller in size). Size variation is accompanied by shape variation, allowing certain skeletal elements to be used in determining sexual identity of prehistoric remains Variations in geographic (population based): Geographic variation can be employed to assess the geographic (racial) affinity of skeletal and dental characteristics Normal variation: individual/idiosyncratic . Can be substantial, but it is too often overlooked. No two people are identical Joints: Synovial joints: hip, elbow, knee, and thumb joints. Free moving joints o Spheroidal/ball-and-socket: hip joint o Hinge joint: elbow and knee joints o Saddle-shaped/sellar: thumb joints o Planar joints: joints to slide across one another, wrist and foot arch Joint cavity: Area between adjacent bones, a space lined by a membrane that secretes a lubricant called synovial fluid . This fluid nourishes cartilage cells of the joint and is confined to the joint by fibrous joint capsule o Joint capsule: a sac made of connective tissue and reinforced by ligaments connecting to the periosteum of the articulating bones Cartilage: tough, dense but elastic and compressible connective tissue Hyaline Cartilage: thin layer (1-5mm) of slick, articular cartilage coating he surface of bone participating in synovial joints
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Cartilaginous joints: synchondroses and symphysis o Synchondroses : articulating bones are united by means of cartilage and very little movement is allowed o Symphysis : a variety of cartilaginous joints in which he fibrocartilage between the bone surfaces is covered by a thin layer of hyaline cartilage
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  • Winter '15
  • Dr.BonnieGlencross
  • hyaline cartilage, haversian systems

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