Mar Mam notes test 3 - Chemoreception Tactile and Biomagnetic Senses o o o Chemoreception Includes the senses of taste and smell Start to lose the

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Chemoreception, Tactile, and Biomagnetic Senses o Chemoreception Includes the senses of taste and smell Start to lose the distinction between the two when in the water Called chemoreception 'smell' is related to sensing from a distance in low concentration 'taste' is related to higher concentration and actual encounter Doesn't have to be through the mouth Catfish use barbels Pick up pheremones and receive other cues Marine mammals: Otters, bears, pinnipeds have great sense of smell but close their nose underwater Cetaceans: nose is blow hole Doesn't really function for smell Odontocetes have lost olfactory nerves and bulb Mysticetes haven't lost these and may use them to smell plankton mats on the surface They do have a sense of taste (most studies in bottlenose dolphin) Have taste buds on tongue No sense of 'sweet' Weak sensitivity to salinity Taste amino acids Individuals do have taste preferences o Tactile Sense Very important around the face Vibrissae - whiskers Found on pinnipeds and cetaceans (all groups) Lots of nerves Pinnipeds: have lost of whiskers Have 10x en-nervation and use to find food on the bottom Also have some muscle control Even after cetaceans have lost these, they still have lots of nerves in the area and may use them to investigate objects Other sensory hairs Humpback: hairs in bumps on head
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Manatees: sparse hair over skin Curved to 'cover' the entire body surface area Blow hole is very sensitive Can tell when it is out of the water Males use penis to investigate things in a non-sexual way Very good sense for thigmotactic animals o Biomagnetic Sense Sense earth's magnetic field to navigate Body secreted magnetite into area around ears Intelligence o Intelligence - very hard to define and explain Possible indicators: Brain size and studies Communication- language or social interactions Cooperative behaviors ( epimeletic ) or caring behaviors Problem solving, tool use, mimicry Play behavior Trainability o Brain studies Trusiops: Encephalization quotient - a measure of brain weight to body weight Has the highest of all marine mammals If their EQ=1 then humans =2, most primates <1, gorillas >1, and killer whales =.1 Sperm whales have the largest brain on earth ~18 pounds but this does not translate into higher intelligence We would not expect a 1:1 relationship of brain size to body size Cerebrum/cerebral cortex - controls sensory systems Very 'wrinkly' and convoluted -> sign of higher intelligence? Is more so than ours, but is thinner Cerebellum - controls basic, autonomic functions and motor skills Is large compared to our own Brain is asymmetrical- the right side is larger Not known exactly why but may be used in echolocation May be attributed to lateralized behaviors Sleep- only 1 hemisphere at a time
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2008 for the course MSCI 489 taught by Professor Young during the Spring '08 term at Coastal Carolina University.

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Mar Mam notes test 3 - Chemoreception Tactile and Biomagnetic Senses o o o Chemoreception Includes the senses of taste and smell Start to lose the

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