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phys 0 physical properties - Temperature Range o o 30C...

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Temperature Range o 30 ° C to -2 ° C o Average is 3 ° C Why? 70% of the ocean is between 0 ° C and -4 ° C Horizontal Distribution o Warmer closer to equator o Temps follow sun's heating N. Hemisphere warmer in September S.  Hemisphere warmer in March o Small fluctuations influenced by currents (Gulf Stream) Vertical Distribution o Temp. decreased with increasing depth o 3 zones are created o Mixed layer : down to 100m; mixed by wind; isothermal o Thermocline : from 100 to 1500m; area of rapid temp. change (up to 20 ° C) o Deep zone : below 1500m; very cold; isothermal o Changes occur over the year but mostly in mixed layer Temperature Types o In-situ  (T): actual observed temperature o Potential  ( θ ): the temp. a water parcel would have at the surface if it were raised to the  surface  adiabatically  (no heat exchange) First Law of Thermodynamics Δ E= Δ Heat +  Δ Work For adiabatic processes:  Δ E= Δ work If we bring a water parcel down (sinks), work is done on the parcel by  pressure Work increases, so E increases…temperature must also increase θ   is ALWAYS less then T Why do we need this?
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Water masses take on their characteristic temp. and salinity at the  surface Since temperature changes (because of pressure), we can use  θ  to track  water masses Pressure sucks!!...it messes up our data    Salinity Units o Salinity  is the amount of dissolved material in sea water o Can have many units: psu, ppt or 0/00= g/kg sea water o If salinity is 35psu, what percentage is dissolved material?
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