chap 4 - PSY 153 Mc/B - FHS Chapter IV Study Guide...

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PSY 153 Mc/B - FHS – Chapter IV Study Guide Conception, Pregnancy and Childbirth Know (in general terms): 1. The definitions of the glossary terms in the margins which are not specifically cited in the study guide items below- SEE LAST PAGE 2. The events leading from ovulation to fertilization- once an egg has been released from a follicle, it is swept from the surface of the ovary by contractions of the fimbriae at the end of the fallopian tube. It takes the egg 4 days to reach the uterus but fert. Generally occurs before that 3. Why, of the millions of sperm available, only a few hundred reach an egg- many die in the acidic vaginal environment, many don’t survive the swim, and many go to the wrong tube 4. How a sperm penetrates an egg and fuses with its nucleus, and why, usually, only one sperm penetrates the egg- the sperm attach themselves onto receptor cites on the zona pellucida (outer layer of the egg), they get in through thrusting of the tail, once they penetrate the eggs contract and pull it in. once one sperm does this vesicles around the egg secret enzymes into the space between the zona pellucida and the plasma membrane, this deactivates the sperm receptor sites and no other sperm can penetrate 5. What a zygote is and how it could become monozygotic twins, or one of dizygotic twins- zygote- is a fertilized eggs, if the mass of dividing zygote cells divides then they will have monozygotic twins, dizygotic is when 2 sperm reach the cell at the same time 6. What happens during the period of the embryo and the period of the fetus - embryo- 1 st 8 weeks- all internal and external structures BEGIN TO FORM, fetus- they grown and mature 7. What the placenta is, its structures and functions- nutrients from the endometrium of the uterus aids early growth, then takes over for nutritional support, disc shaped made up of prenatal org and mom tissues 8. What characterizes the second support system for the embryo- amniotic sac- forms a protective membrane around the fetus, protects against bumps and tempurature 9. What the fetus has developed by the end of the first trimester- fingernails, eyelids, genitals 10. What characterizes fetal development during the second trimester- movement @ 18-20 weeks, waking and sleeping, light sensitivity, unprepared lungs 11. What characterizes fetal development in the third trimester- startled at the sound of loud noises, less movement because the baby has less room, baby moves into head first position (breech position is butt first) 12. The possible signs of pregnancy and what is usually the first clue- a woman misses her period- swelling, tingling, tenderness, then fatigue, frequent urination, food aversion, nausea or vomiting—morning sickness 13. What characterizes the probable signs of pregnancy- hegar’s sign, softening of the uterus and cervix, enlargement of the uterus, positive pregnancy test that test for human chorionic gonadotropin 14. The positive signs of pregnancy- fetal heartbeat, visualization of the fetus, feeling the fetus move
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chap 4 - PSY 153 Mc/B - FHS Chapter IV Study Guide...

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