MUSIC STUDY GUIDE - 191 Midterm Study Sheet Forms Form -...

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191 Midterm Study Sheet Forms Form - the purposeful arrangement of important musical events: Repetition - after the initial statement of a melody, repetition sets forth the formal guideposts within a piece, declaring each return an important musical event - gives the listener a feeling of comfort and security Contrast - takes the listener away from the familiarity into the unknown - provides variety and conflict Variation - the original melody returns but is altered in some way - the tune may be more complex or more instruments may have been added - challenged to recognize how the melody has changed Form begins as A, B, C, D. In variation, a subscript, such as A1 may be added, B2, etc Sonata-allegro - Binary - consists of two contrasting units, A and B - constructed so as to balance and compliment each other - variety comes usually in B with dissimilar mood, key, or melody - may sometimes have exact repeats with AABB form Ternary - more common than binary - pattern goes ABA, thus a repeat of the first after the second - can also use repeats in ABABA Theme and Variations - if A is altered in some way each time it returns, then this results - additions to melody, new chords, more density in the texture to name a few - Statement A, then variations A1, A2, A3, A4 Rondo - a refrain (A) alternates with contrasting music - at least two contrasting sections (B and C) - rondo has been a favorite of different musicians of every age - always has refrain A - patterns: ABACA, ABACABA, ABACADA Minuet - not a form, but a dance featuring a moderate tempo and constant triple meter - first appeared in the early French court in the reign of Louis XIV - minuets were in binary form (AB), but by 1770, the dance was usually in ternary form and grouped with a second minuet with a much lighter texture Trio - because this second minuet was originally played by three instruments, it was called a trio, a name that persisted into the nineteenth century, no matter how many instrumental lines were required - since the trio was also composed in ternary form, an ABA pattern was heard three times in succession - A (minuet) |: A :||: BA :| B (trio) |: C :||: DC :| A (minuet) ABA Fugue Double Exposition Da capo aria - originated in Italian opera - sections A and B, with B usually contrasting in key and mood - when the singer reaches the end of B, the words "da capo," or "from the top" and repeat A note for note - ABA results, another form of ternary - if the composer modifies the first A, the form is ABA' Ritornello - in ritornello form, all or part of the main theme returns again and again, invariably played by the tutti, or full orchestra - between the tutti's statements of the ritornello, the the soloist inserts fragments and extensions of this ritornello theme in virtuosic fashion Strophic - hymns, carols, folk tunes, patriotic songs invariably make use of this type - composer sets the words of the first stanza then uses the same entire melody for all remaining stanzas - "Deck the
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2008 for the course MUSIC 191 taught by Professor Frogley during the Spring '08 term at UConn.

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MUSIC STUDY GUIDE - 191 Midterm Study Sheet Forms Form -...

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