Ecology Lyme Disease

Ecology Lyme Disease - The Ecology ef Lyme-Disease Risk...

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Unformatted text preview: The Ecology ef Lyme-Disease Risk Ceinniex interactiens hetnieen seeiningiy nncanneeted pnenentenn determine rial: sf expesnre in this expanding disease Richard E. Dsticld In the past twe decada. peeple- flying in the: ntn'thEastem. nertt'lr-eentml and wares-n United State: have unwittingly entered a darlguititrs tertitttt'ttit.‘ cycle—n cycle et disease mat typicaily is restrict- ed he wildlife. lr‘n‘llrl rnarntnals and herds hest a wide variety cll' disease agents, with effects t‘aflflttifi inlrn rrntd symp— tecns tel :rnertelity. leet in meat cases the patheflen ailects enly unetsr a hen: heel speciesandneyer cansc‘sdiseascin pee- pie. Hmtreeer. as. the result eta cernpli- cated sequence at eyents. peeple haye became frequent accidental hests t'er ticks and the disease regents- Iit-ey carry. including a cerltscrew-sheped bacteri- nsn filllL'ti EIlTrt'l'LI lmrgdtlrflrt'. the agent at Lyme disease. As ei 1995. cases at Lyrrnrdiset’eeliatl heat repertecl indiflei the El stems and appear in be increas lag, heth In number-set pen-phaaiiected and in geegmphlc etlstsibut'ten. Where dries this disease came here. why has it emerge-ti se rapidly. and what can prawn-tie te reduce them rislc ell espesure? it is FHJsaIble te address these questiens net item a medical peint elf tries-y. but rather Frurn an em- leglcal ene. AD living DIEBEIjEI'I'tS—fitlfl'i the B. inriydlnfinitederimn and the tielcs they inteet tn the mice and deer en its Mat [1 [kin-M I; fifl'flh'fi'lflflllfl um? ens rrull delayed"! the fnstltnicei' ELLLfit'IIE'III Sireftrs Hr rs .||'~,.:-a.'_l|..-I;'.'.is::q'sne f-‘l'tl'lifi'alf I'_ri'l'l'lrl'l_|"1.l .'r.ILi snIIIIJI'IIImnr iII'IIL'gjt-ni llll'l' Ulritdfii'ty I'll CIIII- Ins, he“! IJIIII'EEHEHI|'.FJI'IIIIII'TII_I fle_er:e.iueh' Err I.in r'l unit-leg 4-1 .It Hr.er train-tarp. H:- My Hat lint l‘l'rJ'l JII :rtll'lretrh'wll tia- Umrrrsdyllf Cair- riansl ul lit-rarity.- Ill H.95- lll's primary rewrrll intent-Its .Irr in llflti-tl'tl'f-J'III-lltilg .l'ltl-l-l' .'l|rtl.|I|In'||I'IJ.III detnlnrser n_t tn'clllnllnn'it.e:I=I|Ie-:Il:ll'l'5.l mile-es. nth-ct twenty-unwasst .llnna'rnl' add-ass initi- tntral' Linn-Item Fluitrslle'r 31.3. Rent: -I-I.-‘.:. .‘l-liliiril- 1i. Ni iii-F- 333 slum-fiche Scientist. ‘r'tllume Iii which the ticks teed—term an end-agi- cel relatienshlp with theis' llttllltlli-tlhi. Lin- derstancling the eclmpletc interactions hetweit'n plant and anis‘rtalti-peen-s with- in these habitaE may help peeple te Flt-edict the places where they are twist lilcrdy te attenuates diaccrse-h-earinse ticks and lace-mu- laieelL-d- Thu- armed. In- dividuals rnayelt'cn'lately be EIlZIthtttt'Fl'U-I tect thun'eselnes here Lyntedisease Currently. be present Lyme disease peeple wear preteetiye cleth'tng when they ate in wedded areas and perhtrrn "tick checks" after leaving the weeds. Cine undeternpl'etslted n‘reare- til tit-tilt! eepeses'e tn Lyme disease. hewes'er. is ilt't'tlljlflfi. the meet healthy lick-missed habitats at the times at year when Iii-tics are lyre-st abundant er mast dangentes. Heelmt rcsearrJ'I pelicmnrd in my L1l:|'|:|'fil" Ie-ry. as well as in elhias. has suggateel that such habilnts Can he pmllctecl. nth-I1 well brad-trance. Ultimately. iIis die herpe ei nullifilts studying this. pscihlei‘n that wecan Lee tweeptntiseinp-irtpsintirtg tin-ac tahitats tn warn the put-rile away here mess that are likely trI centain an abundance nl’ dines-Lemming lidei. Didgt'tlflil'lg ti'teDisease Tel the eta-Inge physician. L'_t'T|'|l.'i.llt-Eitii-L' ls suspected when a patient artiyes ata clinic cIr hespltai cernplattttrtg til a strange btsll's-eye—shap-ed rash, lire-am as erytherna rang-ans. e1- Eyi. weather with. ene er enere ttu—lilce symptems. such as tree-r. clnlts, muscle aches er lethargy. The tie-chit nill talce a bleed sample [whit-Innateth erntltrlnalien. but will teel quitecerLlicientte n'Ialcea diale- nesls at L}1'ae disease after neting the telltale cernl'rtrlatten et sympterns. as Iate-ll as the circumstaneln. erepcrnding the inteclitn'l. The patient 'r-‘tll undeni- edly have been bitten by the black.- legged ticlc. isn-drs senntteris. iermerly called the deer their. er a clese relative. which transfers-ed tc- h'trn er her the B. i-rdcetl'r'lrfett bacterium. i'n'lcrst likely, the decler will ptmetibe an eral cheese at antihintlc‘sancl willrhll'y h:me the case te the century er state health depart- ment, Isl-itch will Include it In the Inuit- blclitystatistilsler Lyme disease. Accurate diagnesie and eEi-ectiye b'd'Istmt e-t Lyrtn: clhiease is net always an straightt'eneatd. particularly in re- giena- lat the ccluntty' nun-ts inyaded by the epiclerrlir. in these reyliens. health- care paiteenunals and the nuhlrr l‘lL'l-‘Li te beeducated ebe-et the resenting ancl generalised syinptents. the generally pier-r. albeit est-wing. accuracy Inf Lat- te-sts and the efficacy cuf easieth antibi- rItrr h'eatn'lenls. lF latte-e dls'ase Is ll'Et unheated Inc serne time. it. lllre'drlntcri my pendst tn the patient'n tissue-.1 and can migra te ten the central and peripher- al net-nuns system at tu inlnts and cause ertere-seeere late-stage syrnptnrns. which Include arttnnt'e. and neemlnpi- cal diserdcrs. such as tiredness. meme- ry less and disnlientatimi. ‘i-‘aecisses that pmtect against Lyme I-‘lllt-‘Hflfi-t' an' t'lll't't' being field-tested by pharmaceutical enemies. but wru- has yet been ap- preyed by die Feed and Drug .I'tdrnin- tetratlen ier public use. EL'eII. ii an et- Iectiye vaccine were certttled and mas-Itetrs'l, the- primary meansthat indi- viduals haye et pretecling theneeh'in against the disease is I't'ls'litllill'IE the lid-c in the first place. Te t‘lt1- that. l'lr't't'll'tg'l'i-li'i are trying ten understand the natunll hirs- lesry uF Ly1'nt-tiitit-a'a-arutl ll1t' lift-ltLitrtt‘i.‘ at the blade-legged their. Natuml Histmy ei Lyme Elia-ease Tyree disease is Intstaitenly ll'n1LtHl'll by many te be a new disease that first .131- Iii-Eur, 1. yum-uh. mfi'rlyilmvfi|I1|||iI1-1'IH|.'I|‘ rm.er Int-:1 111.: Enml H11I:II.'.:_:I1III.1|:II1I.':-pri:ll|.'. z-qu-I'a-rand t-IIJ. L'iul by'n'ntfl'ingthe iurhr. :Iluurll- 1|»: Ilnwlllin :. urlluzrin-ga. lw I|:,-|-.-. .1111]: lilr Junie afirrm. lh li'lilflhlll 1.1I.1'.i1II.-JI: IiI'I-l II'IIZIIJHI‘ rarrjrmg I'J'c'lu:during.1II-'.'|.1.Ir|'iI1:ILII yllll- |.I'IJ|I:-,., .1I11'I.' :IF 5.:-.I'I'h.'1.’1l-'J.'11.'-'-I.|— 'iL11_'1_‘I in L511n111q: nllm- ||1.III I"-1| I|1'.|~.1_'1_5 t._1 |1I lL": In ":11 11'rI:-'.1..'L. aill'u'nu_.:.|1 tl'u: L. li11'i'l-‘l' rrI IL'r-: 't-Ir:|1-.1.1 In |”:'"i L'I'I'.||.J|'II!'I.:I..| .ll'll'lllllh Ir. 1.1TIII 1|1L':|' _ hml bun-I1 d H. huh-I -"."..l1'1F||.L'I:'rl'..1| TUE!- .l|1|_| t'rI-u- nurlII-r rLII'IIE'II'.'III l'll:'|-."'I. fulln- thgm |_-_1 ';_';'|r._'l1 I'llr.11'r:_|q_'1'l.'I'II.I.I..IE|:. 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Inln' nun-11w LI‘ Eases lama—1995 - .-|L|.L'IZH'.I - MIIILEIBE-g - lam—:39? - nun—999 - 'II—IEI'EI T'iFll-rl' 3- l-Tr'ml‘ dihl‘lw ill-"Ll Elven millaflt'd III H "I Ilu- iii-1mm. .n uf 19-55. min Imp manning Il'l-‘l' Ill-I-HIIJ'E'I 1|! L'JIIEEI rl'FlllE'tEIi II! “1% L‘H'IEI'I'I-I In: Uhng Ean|mln1d I'lfl-muilm in End-l "uh. 'ulflfl' 1'15; I.II:'rI1I.'In!|:rI.1I'.'l- lh-fl 'Il'ni' EI'HiLIIH 1l11.|'|-1fll'l'i-llullj'fll'rL'r'lL'll an: 1h: “unfit-gun“. "mm- .w-ulrnl and huh-m med ['1le The gunfiraphlr unfit- {unlinucs u:- inrmar. as. lined. 1l-u_- numb-EHIE “it'l- l-‘I-In‘LI-‘Jh -LII'.| F'n'ItIL'l'lta-I fin.- IJI'II.:I:rII|I_Ir u'llll llwhjrlnpdru'nh. ]I1 :mn- u-I.1-r-.I. 1 1.111.: Lilw'-!'-'1'!-".'".' |.=Ir' tllu 11':qu |.l'\-l1'.|'|'||'\-l'| rm;- 1-'-r l'lLIE'HLI IiifiL'.L-'-LI in. tth I. IIiI;u_'-u_1 ':'I|,.:'|I,r_--. Elll'l.‘.1ri:-il'||.t rrI.I|.1rI.1_ cull-.111: {pt-I. m. IJ.1.'L'IglJl' lc'h'r. HUL'kT HULIIIL'IJI'I HF-CIH'e-u.’ Fun-r. |1||l!.'_l|l' Lend nllu-r- .-1.|I||mu;h I!:LTnt'distal“:-ir-1'.'I-.1L-\.|I'L':ILI "1 [hr L'mr- Figllrr J- Bull'rcgrc-ulmpnl nah. hum-m .15 I.'r_I.'|'J1-:|:I1.:I [MILE-Ink. t: L'IHLII1II'.I1l:| ul IF“- Elnt in- dicalmr. II! Jymr Iii-.9459, 55-511 [Hun-.5. -:-|: |.|1-.:- fllh'flfli'alrl llrfl "limit "1: II" and Incl-dd:- I1". L'l. ihlllw. II'Ilntll.‘ JL’JWh and IHharq}: II' lhu- :li-.- f-I‘I'.‘ if! IE“. HHIIIJIL‘J. mclrr u'rmun HE'IIIF'IIJHI'I -'||'||:|L'.1r_. including arthuitia iml 1II'|||'I:III:IE|-|_'JJ L‘Ihul'dl'r'lp. EUL'I'I- .15. £1!!! hula-h. 11l¢g1|¢lrv lay-l and dhlmHHal um. In" '|.II'I-\.'rI-.I.I '1 I.'II!I-l 'II'. IIIII. 5-7- 111 human. llk- I'IIHH‘I‘LIj'fl-ah'rl'l :-:-_-.1_L'Iu.1|11 II'LJI'I'I film]. |.|:1.| tr- ‘-.-1=.1.5=..|1:hl,|~u_lu:.. :In- upr-r MidH'IH-z I'II'II.‘| Cahmnm I'I.'.'.'l" II-m 1'IIHIIL'fiI II1:Ir|1L'-r_Ir-. “I mm: Lth Cycte IJI the 'I'ick |.‘.'I11t* IJL-n'uhl- :- L'irrunlh. 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I'I'UWIEL IJ'H‘ IiI'L 'I'Ifi-L'I'lh I'I'Il'l':.'”1 I.‘I.Irl"- ir'.|I_I 1hr Ili'tH-‘c and lili'fijfi- |-.Ir ..'1|1IIII1;|1,Tr_~1-'_n;'-|i'. |_I du'ljilu UPI-:- II. ll-l'.-|1I'I_'I.'Ir|1;' L-nHHWL-LI 'n'ill'l I'."|I'-'d_ HII' nymph .1|11|_"-_-'. “H'. .lr-.;I ulflfll'dm-rmrln-Imil: IJ1m= :meha mum. |11|II :h.-.' .1:‘|||Ir_ 311.19.; II'I-tfi'fl-L mum I'm-mlnu tiu'ju: .‘rfli'l. it:I i=1 I11J£IJLL|LIIIIJL .-'I.:n .Idull; tic}; film“: 11:...- ':.L-'L' III -! Wr-LITI'A' '~'I‘I.‘~'|. ia- FL'II'I'IL'I'i'I'IILI ll1ll|.'|:' IJI|11l1|_" II1-I11 .1 iLJ'I'L'i'IiJ-L" [ilk ..ll|l.| rypwall'l' l'III'I'IIH.|_-\.|1i_L'.I1 IJI.‘.'I‘I-I.IIII'l11l‘1l'!ll|1'|.r.'|_:l.'- Til-Lian tL'I ELK-'1. I'lllhh. ||".-.' rug-gull u: it; uln- 'n'.ll|.| :tluiullt} i'; I|1.1| I_|1u_~ .'..I-.-.II: I: L m.“ -'—||'. c'rn'nllnhrre: .mr] |.".'Il.'l'11|:'..-'l'-h largu rrI-1II1HLI1H. F'e'lftil'lJLlII'. tlu' -.-. |1||._- mil-3| III-Hr I 3'..'-'-..|.|I'.'Ir.- "|.|_:._-:I.'Il|.-I.-.-.. ll'n'5.|_1I:-:ir'|-.'I- h' IF: ‘J'hu .:1L1LI||-~'r:I._.:~:' 11:}: rur-r '.-.'|1i1._-1.1i]1-LJ clue-J ih I|:':.- run-Inn |.|. I1:. J ,:|'.=__I:.!|'.i,-|- yup. ILIIrrIL'rI]' I all-ml rI'II-klu'r lil'L :hiIIII: rim use deer nul :mEy .u- I|1u:ir II'rnmm'. hual llul .Ilw- m. t'n._-ir mamqu flFIILII'I-II-u .11qu |1|_'|-c-._ which -.-. mull-1 I_ll_.'.lll'l.' i. fercw- “1.1F1L'L1IHILIEIi1||||I|EIIIIrrL'- III-II n'Iurp'lwchi-Ih'u. Il‘ml ran-1L". MIL-nu: MIL-1m: -.'.:||1 l'It Far-‘1- |I1I|ri-:- FIIHJllill'l'liflL'IfirdplL UlHl-u'rrn'd IJI ll'II' Illl‘ I'4"-"l|:. lhn'w batlrrln Jar I.|'I.IrI|II1I||l.' uitlueuprvad' in purl-ulna:an Ilr Il:l;h-rf_!_lgl,lfl I'iL'LII. Ill-'-'|I":= ~I'il_|'1'u'|u|lI-i. I'illl I_.|1I |1|;I fuuml in ul'her tifli. ihnbi In mull. [lu- pmpnn nl U13..- I'I-IL'IEI'IJ HII L‘l'filJtlrihlhfil by illrubaltngam- rm'I'I-iur'I-u III dime-led Iil‘i-Zh witl'. .IIHl-l-innrh'n J'I'Illlludinu linked III .:I flLIIIIL'E-n'L'ILI I-ululn H'lm- Illgrnlh LUIITEIH} nl Ihr lIIIHIPrJ .13111111 the tie-1:1 and [La-.111 (It'd? inieTmH- t:1:'.|1t|1.rr nth-1n male with fit-«Lde Fun-lies, whrJrE-E' L11::Iuii1 pun-s are embedded in tI‘II' dwr’s skin. Females feed sit-mill}- Fur tuur in five days, nits-r whit-I1. thqr cimp DH the deer and 111'LI111-int'ur m an “W Fdfih'. writing shah-er Immen- H'Ii'n'lit WEE-111w mnditinn-s bmeam Ieet' itlllflt' tn the thrust. The Itflfinwinfl spring iii: 111gqu fE'IZ'I'LEIJE fay Eggs in maes- 13 at seven! hundm-J tn. .1 [cw thun— sand..st1d then-eggs- hntrJ'I a imsrh'eeits bier inl'un neweuhnrtui larvae. The vast majnnty uF larval ticks— Hreli Lil-1!! 9'9 WHhalrh [Tn-m eggs tree 121i H111 Heme-disease I'Lacllen'urn, m- Iiiudtlnp: lint the ell-sense agent Iii-[11:11. lml 111$ 1'I::II:IiJjI.r imm mith thmugi-l the turn 11.: her milspn'ng. Hmle'L'L't; Ian-.1! licks may bEfl'II'I'IE' “fleck-1t if they fend L1“. .111 minim-d |1L1striLnLt these acquired infec- Hnlw. nun: retained through li‘lt: |"|'|I'.:Ii.i:5 imrn Inn-:1 1s: nymph and Fruqn nymph ID aduiJ. ‘r‘r'u-I'i: Then-nus- I'riathleret iJnL' UlliVL‘hiiljr'11FFii1u-aieislm1ddneeph Pleu- r11-‘In iti 1111: Centers fer Disease Cnnmui and I‘11-1'e111jnn and Item-r1lem have res-0.11mi that the white-Emmi mama Hquth hump-tn. a. the host Fu'inwillr refipnIL-nlhil' fur ini-ecting, innrnl title. with the |._I.ITnI: spimthetu. and thm ||-u.- 1111.11.15: Is m-I'rsidered 1h.- prtnupal nat- ural I'Eti-EI'L'LHE tm' the disease agent. 111 L}'rnt‘-disI.-nse~enderrtic .111—:Inmrnuteiy 25 tuC'fi ply-tent ut'II._I..-n1plu. and fiJlIJE'iJ peermlnt'aduil lithe-amin- imted 11.1111 Emu-In hitgdlrrlri-n. ISL-came nymphel Lit-ks ..1r1.' much smaller than aduils. .|.I1d i'rL'T'llfi' mere difl'jeufl tn- d1:- LL'L‘i: 11:1 “he's {i-L1tl11'ng or skin. and he- fil'LISL' their peek ems-111,- |.1'I-.'|:':il.l1lJ I; trum Mn.)- tn- luilv. when rnnst pL'IJfIIe aisn spemi .1 int :1!” time- hummus, m1 dun-E. 11i[..'_I'TI'H-'Itifl'flfl'nil'fPTE‘tlflbiTE‘dLfi-fl'll by bites from nymphs tether than [mm min]! tidrs. Emmi“: 1.11..- flnrlnnd 1-‘1'st1 al Tale LII'II-‘r'flfi'iiijr' 11nd mile-5mm Lndicales that III-e primary mflngica] risk .fflfllfl‘ in like Lyme-dimm- epidenfir Lu ti-u- nu rn- ire:- of inflected nymphs within areas pee-pie use mutual-H Imilynr dim-shiel- If Imm 111-bit "rpnng in midsummer. The Atom Ennneelinns Since I31": 111.11an 111 Llifl'L'EL‘d nymphs elm-raging Il1 rI|1'_|.| given sewn l'tassume l'Wnngnn the number nf penple [Lie-l1- i'iitii'g' exposed tn the bacterium. Iris irn- pultnznt In deter-min.- tLttrw I1|-1I'|_'|="iI'LFl.'l:l‘ ed nymphs Q'Jl'lh'il'fl'i.‘ will-Iin a given habitat Iype Ian an}..- given year. Renmt TEE-13.11111 in my lube-Inmer re'reeL-i limt um: 11!- the must powerful Imidiflm-s or" nymph numb-Hrs I! the number at nmms In it particular area. The episudiat' 111' Flemific pm'luflien tflbumper {mpg ni interns, a phenmm-nnn itnuwn as Wasting," Mumr by 11.11:. trees, sets eff dl'l Lt‘tflngiml |:I1.:1I'n reneliun IJui influ- ences distrjhuljnnnnd lntL-ct-itm rates of this. and 1113-11121“ riaiis Hf Lyme disease White-t-Jllt'd cit-er :unsume wand}- iill't'lwst' during much DI the _'|.'t-'.'|I‘. but E‘IIII'I'II'HM hit-IE :1-—- Benn; summer fall WHEN ngnt 5 Emeulized life 1:31:11: ul' line [thew Ed; :in line nmhmte-m “Hi "flfl'fl—mhfl UL‘IIIEII Ell-Ilia il “ill-lifll-fli Il't‘ii'lil Hikn'sfl'in |'.|'.|1.I.-Ii.|'r|.ilr|;al I:IF 11111 III-Inlla but-Inn“ aha: and-I11: i-IZIEIIEIHEI Ilfpr'l'lilflrl'liflll'll i1-m-h-ditf-us-munvh11nimrpmhrisl'mm I:I1|: mamas-teen United Ellhfl 31-1 |I1 Millie-«i Lyn-1:11: disuse-Erma. H1111! [rum the Helm Uniled Emu, Eurnpe and Hail-l Llr‘fll lilt'l lull-i fl'flll'lfmfl “1 li'IIt' lflid'nII'nI'nIt-I' and In]: I heart. Fatally; unwise-11e- hfimmhua mumth blnlJ-fler [redhgunlhelatmdut mbhml rm In“ lemme uni-5,111: IkiI-dJ'DPi I'Ifl. 't'l'ifllltII-Ifllflflli't. "1|: Int-Ira! lickmnltla'rtd hum-1.3 nymph. and in millage-reu- "WWW! IJII'I mil-r5! limb I11: fulfil flnarl’nr -1|1 tut the teller-in; wider. Lu: in flu- :prluj, er mi].I in the lunemrr uI'II'I-I: Enlqu me. the 11m aeeiulnrw hnitnrl nun-1111.11 In fired ml prepare [w I11: tin-El mth Lulu an idhlI-sdegetirk abunth mull-u hie: 11w put; when Fullflflil-flEkJ-dil'ltfllmldlillumtt-Al thhtiuw. H1: :tlthmd lung.- anneal.- “film. .1:- mummies-teth L111?- h'i'li-te-ielit-d flee-1: m1 will-duh: lili'ilt bullnfrefierld make...||.|.lul1 t'e- mulu ta].- meheflslhe miles-.1115 l-pt'ia'tg; and H1: 1:511:11: uni-1.5 .lilflh'fl' .Igun. Ir'l'tnm pen-pl: “hr flint: in: ulhrul hush, [hr].- flskbemmlnflinieeted with the flilrrrfll'rr hauled-m IH‘J? [HIT—august J-l-l II II II'HI'HIIIII'I' . :ILI-l! l. I_.l.-.II figummTj-jl-irat adult Inn-1m q-urpmlnrf: I:il.'|. f-nun-d Ln Mm '5:;.|h..nlj Hnwfnymd mth awmmmq ‘11“: “f HIE "I'Eumlwimwflup rrl'm bacterium. Elm-III“ in th: magenfirlphlffll awn-away: :5—tD-lqll-Pi'NL'IH :Immu l:l-:l-:.-. m, duan-lw [mm lmluhn righL rfivmpl't. adullnult' .III'I-d JIII-I-II rfilldlnl‘ -"|1.1n:.-I:-[l|'I-rsr licks. l'lnd hhl‘lf-huflm] mlc-Hrrghri- “11.115. L‘I'LITiI'Ip. masl _|.L'.'II'~.. 'n.‘|1|_'rl nun-n5 an:- .1|:'-.Illl.'|.':rll. LIH'r fr1wr :Iwms. dLIanHuu- lumII -Irn.| wmlrr 1."r'i1]L.Lm McHhrm .u III'H.‘ :"'-.:lfiI.Il'I.'-||. FAHIHIHJI .1I I'.1.rI.; i=1 J'nunl H-1'.'.l|. "p'flHima. III1I| Lt'murkm I'th-LIIJ :Jdlu lr-smmn‘ring cullars I||| dwr .Iml nmnIrLI-rv-d Lh-czr mn‘uflwnh .uul rimx I|'-I:1r IJl-Zt' L'Il '.1|ITI‘?I‘IIII: I'I.1|,'~ila|| I'|.'|_"'|_'"_-'u TI'IE‘nIl- 1|.lI-.|IL'~. IJL'II1I'Il'Il-uEI.II_1_‘I_'I [lut- .JL-L-r u ilflk'll'rl‘l'filr‘l‘1hL‘IlrJL‘I'j'I-Tillu‘u Ln mic-mm“. ME"! 1.520 “III-LE EEI4'EUI‘1E1Erfi {III' l'lfiflIE Clad-I. ha'rJ-nalu IulHJ Elm-H stun-:35 durum. LhL- .‘Iulllmn LII' n1.'.1~r Tram hul Hwy. .11.|.'-II.|.|1.1L burgh in nnnnmfit jun-am- f:n||_'.-.,1I:I]'.' maLLw 111g: Ltu.lli|:r' -.1r wulchh' hfi151'fié' i- l'u-1I1-r ||1 I~1|1I_‘r1n'\-|'I_'~_-| IEI'FIUF. .M :I'tE'p' F.3E'IIII.'II.LI-rfn.":~. hludr bin-3'. Jn !-'I!||..l:l|1L*.'|:-itl.'|n ."~.1.'-1.~.' Turk St.1||,'_ rn.1_=.| Finn- Iiul'hun ILI.':I-L I'Ih'n'r i:n I‘WL .3:-.:.| WM. wu1l1 rL-w .1u-Irn5 pndLm-LE m 1442. 1'49}, I“? and I'L'Llh "+1_'r' cullmgufi. L'Iiw hluuslrn _-:Inu_:|wmu I'w-EEETIIIE |5I|.'Ié FlgLIT-r 'i'. Pup-:ILI'Ii-rln. dEI'H-IIIH 1|! I.lr"| Jl mini.” flak-and mk-dnulllmm luff-uh.“ "'1;- lam-lulu uF'EruH-Etfl'n fihJIllI-‘HLH'HP III wIIIhH-Irl'm 'I'na'IHhIfl-dnmaliralh in." Farm :u-JLLan'll- Iitkdt'li'allh“! "mgr-aria”? high in lull: EIII'E'II- I'I-fill-DH-‘JIIJ: Ira-m iII whirh Ii1n1uhhhavL'l1rn-duwd '1 WHEN-“IF high numb“ DI IIIEII'I'I-fi' i FhE'II-lllll'lt'l'l'lll'l lnu'wn as mailing. [-Dllfllh'ln“ llnlhllL-HI 1w". WHEN Hum F'H'IdI-IL'll-Jl'l- ll-JI- III-I'rl IVl'rHHL' II'I' I'IL'L-rm i'l-‘Ii'fifil', Inn-h. |'Il1|.'|u|.1|‘il:l11h 4:1: mml «IL'ME iI1 mIIPII' BRIEF-1E- thuIEr'uItlun-ufiu-Lh H them-haw.- iufifitumllm “1.15.1 Pmu'ucrjun mag.- In a I-Ifl'lul nrndlrlnrul lli‘I'I'liIJIi-il'l-thh Lymc-diH-Jw rial. I1I.-|}'I_I1 purl-inlhrlyhigh. 1:: I'LII'II'III'.'III I:I'II '|II-I_ II'I_I|I_||T||' EL: IL'II'l'L'E: th |.l1.I.' [I1H1lll1t' 4 Ir' l:c¢1l.'l.'_-.t1'_'1r.‘_-il1|u_1- IL:-'- ML! JL'rn' 'I‘n'ull'r'at Urugrm 4m»;- L'm- '-'I'n~I|_I.'.eI11L1 | Ihcmiurc L-xpmml Hm: in ||1L':l'u.l'llJl11l'I-Ir| mun .Iml Hal-I4. ._:|._~._-: l'u'ETLlllj L1:unu|:|‘|:r.|1|_' Ih-Iju' fll:|_'i'|.'i!h!!-i iJ'l 1L1}.- dmnlsmml 11.II-.'|1-m Ih.‘|l ll'lL"."-'.'-\.'|Ll:1.|1rl.'l-HII'I rlu'lr l'Iur-dcnmll adult LIL-lb. inmmk Hands. and [I'L'Ii IliLk fun-lit: lL'L'IlIJIi h..- Eik' print”): 'Illl."- '-'-'|1LTI." t|1-.I thL‘é 'n'nuI-J Emir-1nd |-1}' r|1L'iJ upgfi I’Ini- pr-z-Lll-zlui that Ilfih Inland?» “Hui-J h' “II-halal l.'.'i|I1 I.'II'."|'|'|1.' |:'I..'IEI."|5|'I.’E LIrI..1] I;st [n 1111; gum- IIIL'I‘n H1. lug: :1I1I.| 'I"-"'-'._‘—|J'“.:1!1=-.llll.'.-1I:I:n- ITIL'T'E" rnllmfing heavy nu-il JlnhluLTi-Hn [l1 {L1l'l1IIL'-'-|_ r'ud' Hu- '1tll11rl1|_'r'- ||.1I'||_Iwa|1:._l' I'nafi! f-lllurr. In: per‘liL‘Iu-d 1th |.1l".'.':l liL‘L-n INN-HM h' mm: abundau! I|| Llllll'r ILL 11th IIr'F'fi. 5mm wu aL=-u pnalwtml 1|‘IEI1 Elf-M mmfd II'I'II'IIIII “.13; [fir-hr:- i|1 JHIL'IJ'EI‘L'IhJ'..'ILLIIJIIII1:-. TH tnl Ihn: prulimnrl. m:- IIHLIE' nem- l'El-L'ItL'E- L'Il I'L‘Iflli'r'r.‘ Uuipupullfimr, |_|1 H11- IiiUL'rLIr'I! I!I..1|.'rII:.I|-|I!11'II run-5t n'pus. .Iml lEIn-I' t_1.'p-.'H .~r nip-:n I'Lflds. h'jlh [hr-h.- n'pljmtu: fii‘lflu' In: um'h [fin-J hum-J up. ‘i-EII'LIFIEEI 'r'u.‘ L1.l|[u.'-IJ FI1IrrIr.In:;I1 Tir- :nmr-IL- I'LEI. JhLIIul-Ilrw. WL' Bald a Manchu-cl IL'l'I11'III-llll' ||1.1| Inruh't-E-dmggltlg .: ll'l1l'- :Lquaw-mu‘ler pinata nf witilv “mi-mu}- I.']LILI.'I ahmg J.|t't':LIL'_I.-o.1m_-1| “11th ]|'3l_| mp- IZL'IH IL:-11_!.'; I'IJHI ‘itl1Flel1fii'1'E-fi' I3 mytth hI LIILII1r ||1-: licks Ihal .‘sLL'Irh tufluu-lnlh W1: |1IUI1L1 that “w Imulinn [1| punk JEnInL‘].LI'II I'tII Inn-1i rick:- .-:|11'rI:1~ dwmli- uflljr j'mm went 1-1 war. uflm‘hjmg -.-.-i||1 1I'I-l"'|.'||!'I."'.'-L"|!1.I_'¢' I'r.|' .11't‘li‘lilml" l'IIILIL'IZ1FI1'H ||.'I 1I|kL L-‘L'Iflljr- IZI'IL: pl"in [all fink brads. wuru llh- MEI-n HF larval-rick LHJIIL'IIR'JIELH Ln LIIL- Hulllrnunu rl::n|]11'.'.'iII|_|_.rI .Jmm yuan. |.-'.|1L'rl_'- I'll- l'|.'|.|."lF||L' fLItLF-LH lure-w Ilkfl‘ul Juan-flap in- {FEED-.1 I:I'| nun-ulnar». l'c1ljllu'lng mum |:|I_|- um. Faahquucmh'. tngL-llmr mth ("hw- I ll |II;;I'I|.I'I I"I.i.I ll..-..I.lul- l.. I Jen-ts, Jerry Weill and several: techni- ciarei. 1 added almust l miJllnnaIIirte-ilu flireeL‘E-htc'tare int-est plum-duringH-u: L'ILLl'IJI'lflJ'I uEal Emit- ul 'l.rl:"r"_|.-' p.111 nut-unl- aeurn pnflurti-tm. Mncennel. wen-unn- Ihn't'd three matched plats Ict which he acems were added.T|1e ltrliewliifi sun-1- I'I'EI' WEREHW lhfltdmtI-iiiiL-a Ullnnral hka 'n'L'n' appritsln'h'lltly 1L1 thus-thigh er in a-Lurn-s'tlpplL-trntrited pints 1han l.'t'| ctmtml plum. This result sup-parts nut prey-reed link berets-111111111 awlluhllr Iy. fiF'I-lL'i'llH' Hy WHE-etaiind dmmel IL1- firl-‘ilJ-I'l-fll" larval-tick nutbreairs. titer are net the anal}I witllife specie-1 that rely strengly tmac‘tmetas :i Ewe re- SUIJIEIE. Imp-{Elm sl'dilln rel psi-parlalinn dymmifls tel white-fueled mice. cen- tlucterl by Ierry 'r'n'Iath in ‘e'irginia. lay Steven H'Esey at Bflwfiflg Eugen State University in Ellhiu. byltu-ph Men-L11 .11 the F'fl'r'n'IJermlIJ Hinlugiral Stalin-11 in Pennsylvania. and byeursehrfi in New anh. reveal that the abundant-en! min- i.11 a particqu area as clesely tied m acnrn tmniuelitm. in III-I: fall 11f .1 nus: year. l11ire hunth censume and ate-re aL‘u-rnsin large numbers. Censcquenliy. duritteI Iii.- winters inlirtwlnfl rum-.1 Furnn decline. mien1 tend b.1- Espei'i'rnlre higher- lh-1I1-nul'rnal suri'lynl rates. 11-".I'inter herding by white-rented mace almnst never talus place when amt-11s are 1.111- ai'aIJable. 111 mutt-ass, rmn- breed mm. rently during pmh'nnst winters and ite- gin the nermal spring-breeding season all hllah ciensitynrrd ii1 gee-d physlnlngl— ml crlnditiun. Mnuse FlipLIII'tHL'l-I't's then naaeh peahelensity by the null-tilt: HEIIH: summer hillllwinga mast year. lly Influencing the use Di space by deer and the pctpuLaIJrin dynamics ut' mice. aen-rrt pntdut'tlttn is fled in peaks U1 abutham' nl htrl'h larval [itch-i anti mice. the mast reseryuir-cempetenl hensL In ualt terfils duringJ lhe- sLu11|11er lnll-nwing a mast year. Currently. my mfle'agues and 1 un- h-tihne the predic- llLrt! Il-‘l-t'llrh'fiIU-H‘Uf greater densitifi ell miL'e in the pastime-t yea]; larval 'Iieits ha'ile a higher pmhahiJity til I’eecll11I.'-r art mis resentnlr tilllflll'h and flinmrtrflnfly 11F engulfing the l.-'_|r'l'l'||.."'lil55E'..=I!L‘-t-tllilfilil'lfl l'Iaclerium. it Ihis is tnie. we expect hae- tL'1'ial-inlect't-n11 fi-IIE'E- Ell nymphaJ hale-t tn be highest [sect years helm-ring heave amm ph'niuefitmmuespectatien that is cnlrrenlly being tested by dissecting Ticks and E'is'll'l'lill'ljl'lg their tissualurlhe presenL'e ed 5. lIrtrlmittrferl'. Eesaese thr- abundance nI inlet-Led nymph-1| Itrlttt is disprltrery fielugtml risk farts-1' i11 lite l.]|"lT|L"-I.‘li5-L":I!i|.' epirlcmic- It is clear that sees _- l'l1ll'Il'lll,l'l'I awrhlruf rnce alive at s a e a iii iiiii asses eases seaae EFEE 1991 199% IQ'Q'EI I‘ElB-l 1:995 1595 Flfiifllflmflihuufwhite—fueted mkemflmafllehd by mmfifimmmflumdhh culled-gun I'racltetl Elbe pup-1.11M bull].- M Whittier-tiled rrline em I'nan L'H-he-etafl Inple grid—I I. IIEPl-fllr MHIHM lIJItltHI'lIl'Ia near the IEE. [11 I'll: 'uli'nler Enllnurlng “limits :1! wmlmfllamadumen, .fl'lllfl'fltlfl'l'lu'lwln. breedmtlflashpfil: pueulatlens Iltetlellew- lily-unmet; vultures-1e13,: toilet-r the pull-11993 uni 1m a: mare tile :11 snap-ems pub-ably HMHHUHim-ldmplfihlld predatlnm wlflfinlheues. [limhflwinfimm nil-m mime pup-lillnnl In: wielded-ably let-Ht lrt Ilernlly. Undershnehtg tiltedyrllrrlcl at mumpupflafiuflnuy-fldmaeyb: Wuhan-ml hlgh—riskhahhm. mutating beha'i'iclr by claits may have tIucial censequences itI-r Lyme-dimes:- epideminhflv. Hell-it'd mt heavy arm-m pmdurtinn in 1991 end I'M!r 1+1: metered that 19?]- and 5996 wede be years efpat'ticulat'ly high incl-Elm all Lyme dLfi-edaitr. Stet-Is- li-IE Ernm the mum-y health :Iepamnenls in Emilie-3mm New ‘I'uri: slate inalimte lhttlraltl'liugh 1993 1eras an average year iner diseaser lWfisas-i' an unusual- ly "with: nice-ate. a wheat restt-E L'I'tll' t-ntitlel’s arrurary lrItrilI require at lfi'lali Fifi-Tm] mare years ell mnnitering mast prudecl‘iun areal Lyme disease eas- es 111 additiin. it wil] be lrnprtrttanl tn determine :1er Isn't-.- lat-3e .111 mm ml: WEE-in! aytbi‘hltmian'l in their mnstprcl- tint—Hm, inc-muse i1 is vaniy within these meets that we expect Lyme disease risk tube eel-related H'llll hem-n rmelnt-Iiun ll'm years Luther. The rule I.1-l the repulatinnclynamits nr' Iri'hite-tn-atccl mice in delermlnlfig thlt1 risk-Iii Lyme disease- is eemplleaied by ll'll." lenelenc'y til mlr'u t-I1 Innis-111m I|'l large numbers during p-npulatictn peaks. pmbably tI.1- aseid intraspeeiiic amassinn and a buildup nl preclalurs in. l1i[ttl1.—cluerl.sil1.r areas. 1r'lt't1rlt In. pure-1115s in my Lil: lndwntfi. lhrll' qHut-1:15: dlaIt-Iy alter leaching pea}: density.I the summer Enlist-yin]; mast predue-tlnn. mause pupulatitttut bE'Elfl tn tie-enm- rapt-fly, and that 11w- decllnt- is a result cut bath nmriality and emigralim I'm-m fink-dumman be hilats. Emigraticm rates appear in he l'IlEhE-l. during the pea}: seas-:11 el iniesLaIl-ttn nF “1.11::- with lai'yal ticks. se that amen-4n]; mice Iii-111' l1- I'L'Hpmfiible fer hanspnrtingat- Inched larva] tiszs hum patch te patch within the landscape Mice typically mes-e lt'tim riskier-13E. Intu mqhqitlmal, bulllflfi III'I'I'eH-THJ, habitat tfi'les suehas IHEPJILEIIII'fliIIfilL'll le-resls cIr shrub- dtmiinaterl i'lelds: therefore they may he rest-nrislble fer cILLr ebservalinn that. two years infirm-jug mast persimtltm, maple hire-alts and Hut-Ids iIa'r'e dens-Ire HIIII'L-Llslltll pupulatiuns cIl highly in- let-led nymphal tielts. 1:1 mes! years. maple [DIEIE ancl npen fields are rela- tively state. he! lieu years. fella-Lying -1'|.'|-T|T| pmduri‘lnn lhey are much riski- er. Mute. htwwer. that these habitat types hecumerislty asa result L1l lrrtnu- Iaratinn by I11ic'e Ihal are inflated with titles. Areas first are distant Frum ml: Farts-t!- lrr that are rIl rte-er quality tur mice may I'H."|."E'I' atrrart large numbers et'wlgt'ant mice. FIFE!!- Fult'l-IZI'E IFllIthtflflk—l'fltfil But-5m tltlt influence r'uknflguadhealaremmma- rind In Ilti mdfl.hrrunllnd7flefl1eplirlar_tldilerlim nilfifiu. meplmlhenumhefl u! mil hflnenflfltemhflnflrflu-intmlennhtaffldmhutnul flirtemfineum MMHipflhm-lfllfl: tedlrnmhtdiultarqafi'eente. lutelfl-aulli'flthlfltedudad l'rttl hn-reh-een fuel-flied hymilurflen'l'l'u: mettle] dflflflmli that “mm m Humlh‘ectlufirtlttulewdhwalmieflumu-Wmflbmheflnfliutmtpm “TM. The titule summarized above are engdtng. but their pm'etde hnpe that trad-11:5 must and field type-:- tan he Irish-th tar Lyme disease Iwell h: rui- It.'anu.:Ie-. Ultimately. we expect that. Just .15 the risk is peanut an :nnngr nattunztt and stateparluahd t'n-teslseadt seas-an hu'IhE-t matte: tat lintttl helm-mt nun-mt. dfl't: Identidtsttntlspimcll'teswfllal- law uettiwamthe publicth arms In fluid-and whim tantrum them. Cnntrnflhtg Turk; and Ihethtttc Erutugittn and mlun‘tuitlg'lr-ts hat-'1: searched unsuccfishtlly int hittingleal agent? Hut might mntr'nt Whitman ui black-lewd tlch. Natural IIIde tit Edits. sum as- ]:t-arfiiti: wasp. well'iipl- dfls-fltflfl WWI-[nthhmehm turmitatueithtrhighiyhfihmd infirlr impacts on dcttsureii'al mlmfi‘eetieefid- Hwy“: hn‘flltstutitfinttheFrIt-mflnl D‘- tecttlt'tsaess elf paflmgens and preiauxsumnn'nlafitmhmwmml. fliehirthgimlctmtrnlntljdaafieaiselu- the. tnrranlirartinuhlmprlaflnn m1 Hint-Freedman? byntmdtng, which reduu‘s HIE Etl' incneass nut-inlay tutwhelhertttis mefluninm ti mittml L'rpt'nthre Eur tit}: and. Lt sLt. tn which Iiieefitgfiiislalgelyunimnm My finrmer student fitnttt-n Hauler. Eut't'lfl'lflj" nt Herth Eat-ultra State L'ni- 't'ersit'tr. and ldatgnedasnuiy tn- deter— mine whether crate-fling :Ii'tanmt tldu en WW‘HS mice reduces- the tlIIht'i ahflinrte sun-tee, teed sunfluflymd melt lnte rtint-lie nymphs. t't't: placed Varying numbers of ticks cm captive mine and felhtwed thith- feeding and melting mess. We found that the EIJI'I‘E prupctetiun cti larval lids Fed sue- cesetultjt en tnlct- and matted intu nymphs whenlhemlce time heea'flyin- h'sled at Mt ticks per ntnusees when may WL'ttt tightly hitch-ed with dlt'llj' 5 lith per mouse Thus. at the densitifi Framed. titkpnpulalinnednmtapptar lln he regulated L'ru-titdinfi L'Fl1 theh' tItEEIimFI'III-LH'HJEL htEactnurerperi— :nts'tls suggested mat ticks [ed mum-e eurmatulty when the]! urn: mute cmwded Inn mice, a I'EL'lll that wnulrl he expected it the aflttttlttgulnnts and Imtt'tunte'trppl'esait'e agents in ticksah— 1.u'aaI'ernc-re diefiiw at higherdcnes. -"t rem-tit chart in our lnhmatury te- d'ente ennputer medals- n-i the-dynam- J'Ism‘I—yme disease retreated that the tie- grt'euEt-‘pechtrrdieastty in Ihe-cnrnmu— nttynthnatsl'artirtrz-trray have; tuning impact m the tiskuiLgrmedist-asefthis simulatien madel. devised hyjnsh ‘tu'hn Bust-ilk 31 litre attitufilsthn Intttltut. Ufii'I-‘E'Ft'ilrjt" at Enrich. mate-:1 a habitat in which ticks encuunler limispeebestn Pulpit-I'm" tn- theI fir-Filnhtm density Ell fltel'ttFLAs-inrlahue. the mmputer—ue- ated husts varied in their Hitrltlwttd ut' hinting Feeding imeniie ticks with hac- h:ri.rt.. but did nut Ivar]..- substantiafly in the pmbnhttltjt' that iI tl-rlr. teedl'ng an that heettqaecits-wmhigajnahtllbtnad meat and null lltfltlJ't-E11E'Elt-Ilagu. Tl'uz' medet meet-fled that reducing filedensthrclt'cieec. wtcichstsnreas I'tnsts. fnr adult licks. went-3 l'l-tl'l't.‘ tmty'n mud- tstetterten tick:th and that rte-H1- mgd'tnrtdt ll'tE'l'LEEIIEEflEalittt at these- hmtn wmtld substantlntty reduce tick. Huntth This result is EIJEIFIt'IllEEl by mph'i-cal data mileeted by Mark 1-"'I"Ii- snn at the tints-ersin uF Mtrhtlipn and his EDWUflEEI‘S indicating that deer hunting has. little it an].r eFEeet m1. tleh t'tttt'ttlhtm whet-n1: ultmtnitting deer by fencing fl'tetn El" ramming them hum islands drastically reduees lick densi- tlt'. {In the nth-r hlttttl. the nude] sug- gested thetdienLertheruth-zhs ean he reduced steadily- by gradually reducing the density l-Jl heel: fer jut'enlle ticks tthatis. rudenlsard 1t:.ar:let.a [Juliette-i Iha'thm'ntt yeth tested T'tflt'tlfltfily. I‘m‘imps ntest inhn'leafirlg. the rrquel suggested flintiniecthn Inlesnt'hn'tmtle Edna-d lit-nee ttertelmityntttitmss nrehnrerwhmfl'tehmtmtnumnityis highly- diverse than when unl}: a few species tat hunt: are avnltrttfle. Because mint-enemide H'mwhitE-tcuated I'l'HD‘LiSE, is a hint-lit.I mmpeten't nae-weir Eur H. hurgdflrhfi. any inn‘eese tn the Epfififidii'flrtflyfllhfl-Efi'flldflufl the ether nit min: by nFFertng ti:th attrtmv the, neervnirhteflm‘petmt hunts Emm It-It't'lich tn teed. This IE'IJJI. is consistent withe-mpirimt mttmhtnlmd him the mflmtum and “Ia-tun United Slims. hyltdamt Laneclt'the Udiva'sttynfcali- httttta at Betheh'j' 41.1141 his LTIJIfiIflLIIEF. In ll'LE-E'J'IJ'EIE fliehnstcuetunm'tity include. swat-fl studenFteImeIr—Imnpemtt mienla- and liaarde. and the inletH-an rate Li mutt-'- licks is much h'nwer mm in H1;- nJrl'hrnfid'E-‘r‘n and Ik'fi-th-mntral Unli- ecl Slat-:5. at key implimthn l.|'[l:l'll.‘nll.1:l|.‘l 1'5 that n'ejmajning l'ujifli ape-5&1 dimrsltrl.’ In. twink-nuke can-urnuniflfil. Em- Initiate 'trjr' "51th1:1; high habitat div-mew in high predate-I Illa-using mag: reduce the m]: M Lyme difiL’Hfi-fl Rectntly [LIE-l1 1I-I'arl Bun-thins. Ant-l 1 fl":— tended Ihe iimulatim nah-mid tn:- a land- :nmp-e cumislll'ug m fiat-'eral diflemnt l'_'r'|.'l'lfi- elf l‘h'lbllzat panel“?- nmmg Whli'h hell'L [adult and deer heals wen: able In |I'II.'r'.'I.'. We mane-ed 'IJ'E-E' hahila! patch- 1_=_=: manning; Ira 1.11.1: uruJL-‘j'fihimtlng 11E the Immuqu Semiaural ant! .mhnrlenn Fall-d- amp-5 in Lym'e-ujjaease-endemie areas 11! tlu- nuuthenilet'L-L Unfit-d Elatee. [n these-amen palm u'lJ'L' rt'lafively mull cunq'IaItd In [MdEFIHIcflFthJlIHHl mm'nmalfi. and m'uau-hah-ilal repairm- atimte "‘H=Hn:e Fetch-5." a5- they‘ are r'lL'l -I:'.I:|:|-E|EIEI'E- ul an'ije'mnte. wheat-:15 nlhers film-flute "'Hmk [hawk-5.” l:-eraLL-:e mgr an: TlL'l' impfla'lrfi 4.1E-nu'nigmnt1 Dru.I key result at me model was That rem-Mutable dena'ttiE. el highly inl'nxteel Helm can be maintained in ‘.:iir'll.='." l‘IIIlilli- tab; nu! wth the avenge density eF mdenl Inna-115. Lew. 'l'he- dmifir 1.1! in- Euetmj hark-4 In any pafileuLtt' habitat typ- 1'5 .1 e1men1ut-nn: ml the walrn'rtjr' u! ether pal-:11 {3'95 and the IIEFL'E-al Flatten-:5 [IF mdent and deer heats. which nur empirical stud-Ilia: demure state are afleeted amen a'mila'laflil'jr. Thu5.eurmndd.1nd fielli data indie-ate that the lug-ml rte}. -.1F Lyme diam-1e- Lan- nut he mulleted ramp-11' l:I].' lmingnn eunditiuna witth the 11:":al habitat. Hath-r. land-um: pulley nuke-m 1nqu altar.- wider The dynamics 11f I'l'llfl' until ticks in me Hun'uLLnd'mg land5eape. Entielal Akfil‘udfl- inward Hahn“: J1 ls irnnic that. "pat aa- l'Iun'IrIn Etienne. are Renaming inmate-.1}- awan: of fire inh‘l-mll: hallm- |.|[l|-'II1-II'L'-1-1"fl.l 'aa'lIIIlLtt'll'eiH. rJ'IE' L5m1dj5|3a5e has mnrieel [maple ten Iearand rnjalILIEt nal'um nifl'lin endEmie areas Either emerging lick:- hnrne diseases. 511th LE: hIJJ'nnn tuba-sin- human granullxj'fic nfl'u‘lid‘tinsis {HGE}_. .1th 1:: the rug-1 and perceived Fifilfi- ell' enInaun'lerieuaI a fielr. while nul- dmfi. Hikers; and EILl‘rIES unler'n'lg [DIESE- aweltln'w ammyed m- [righluned b]: the memum'. 1]'l-l."'_|u' mml: In -'I'I-'I.|Iil:l elm- taet wifl't find-:5. 'l'hL-se inL'lurJL' wmr'tng IJEIJu-milnrtfi ek-rJ'LLng, pant In? int-n «mute. wearing Iq'lt'lg-etkieemzl applying insert [fiat-llama and ELI'I'IIEIEI-Zl' l‘lglu'l' ll]. “manque-ELI: mlee alarm: mm elk-deuid Mueller habiut tarps the-ins and Flu-di'gpeah Mmeb'tmtln'teg Hiramd lelh'J'flfiHhfiH-du-dEPflEEITHIHH-fldllfl l-fllfl Imqlllhnthdmirllatl antl mix-ed dumb and gall-I1.- pat-damn IIIEILLI'I'EIJI'Itl-l'd hflflflfllltl'flll Ilium line,I den mull-15H Faith‘s. patella. a.rI:l punt-n: datum ml: Imam fiatelxquhil'tg Lym-alumInmi:"IfIluae1nlmhflheimfld1nhhnfihnfluflflm! lemming Illa: dbl-an- haul] PEIE'J'H mun-untied h1- neu'lt Elilr'Ell'. E'al'l BF .1 Lyme-dka prim-enth mam mm I]; firm“ which habitahinn'tl'li :llll. when tn a'r-alfl Ilifl'l'L Wrrfiyabary mama-hum Lndlcaluil'rgrlikher unwrmallfl l'l'llflflhfi' rum-Emu. 1:1'IJIII'IIIH arms-l in}; tl'HJnJugl'I tie}; ell-elm u-flvr ltn Fifi}; llu: nip-nude. Parenla an: trl'tm It'll.ietan1 liLh‘li‘ lnw el'IIJdL'erL tn play in the [El-1115!... and when gut-h latitude: :l..'ll_5'l.1e'l.'flrjl. is after: an:- tumpanicd the admflnln In II'I'ITIEIh‘I on trails at all Ins-um, |.'l-L|'J' eun'unt battery uF l_.{.l1:nE:-r:ll:=.ea5e prevention un'ulefilea reth almnfil whellyen amid- jng mil-4, .1 mt heir. HIE-.5. UnfnrtLumtnflg this: :itual'inn is unlikely In change In the mffll‘tfl'fl. Sun-le- alt-1.15 are being taken tr: tune-5! 'FhL-IJ-plr'fi ZiJTITI'ILLr'Il‘lIfr' tI.'r thi- lJ-fit‘luI'IU-I'fl. should fl'L-au' encuunter it. At least [we Ieaceirtes- have welsh“): been tested JI'I Large-sealelikl hints 'r'rllh 'I'Fllflfltl'flf hu- rmn mt'rIIEm‘ts, tle widen} suggfils that they will he I'eJattvely Ele' and ettecth'ein ptII:'Ir'ui:rItint:-I Lyme dismal: Huh-Human eit'ective vaeljrlenstgr' with: fl'tEIIInEIL‘L'a thntmmepeepteeepeet [In a Pallltilljfll't-Wii-llel-L'ITLHE t'hkt'II'Lyme elite-ME remake rattan-tab!)- Its-e. Fur ln— stance. in Lde mun- LlEit'lfl'bi' ncufl'lenstemand mutt-natural H'l'flh'fi. thwmluntmses mfimmt m in 3D per item iJ'uiJ'vidu-IJS. and. in the run at the Unilecl Status. cases per ll'Jflfl'tl'lit'l'lelaurel].1:IeII::I1.-'.r lfl. Git-Int thie- t'eJ- ati-lrely lute wattle-.1 peptic-flan lee-eth temaimtnh-detennlmdwhetha'wide- spree-cl useeta wedneiswnnnnbed EVE-El ifttls rt'lsflt'lfly safe. Fer example. the questinn at when needs tel taJ-urlhcvam'ne tact-Lumen ts- suc. Sheulfl physicians urge that the Hume-ml pupulntltm threuflhuul states having high Ljr'me-clleeme infidcnce be given vaccine? Shttuld 't'aeeinee- he mule available “113' in pimple “in an: palette“larl}.r at rislr. tel-Hing. H1 Hit—“if pm- fesslcm (I'm exampleJandH-ane garden- ers. time-um fll'ui path: mam]? fl'FIPI'tT' entlf, the et't'eeln'tl'enesu :1f the vaccine dmfljnesdmnaljmlly nth'rtlnejmm-fli'fi annual h-unsler administratiuns are ue-ectect te l'l'lFl‘lTlllfllTl an effective re- Hpnnse. Will patlenm and their IJDL‘Im'E be nflptHIEI-hlr.‘ abeut sustaining thelr icrununlzathme fiery yew? 'I‘I'lJl vand- nate-cl penple hulk.er that the-fl.r clet nut hum.- Le: cenicl ticht'ltltn.miasthulr1-'htl- lame: and mm mute readily be allies; petentlally nutre deadly. ficie hnrne diseases. such as- HG E. [PI-1m which they are net pretence? It appears likely that. et'e'I'I mm a teddy: available vaccine and a public and health-rare eumunilje that an? wet] Helm-ted p.'I.-u;|ul Its use. axutelanee HE tt-ct. bites- will n'ct'tnin flu! [Jlt'iJI'Lar'EI-r mean:- :‘nF preventing Lyme dttlt'fl-‘il‘. Ii en. the print-lit? I'E-H-fli'rnfi'l'tlllilt'rt' for pre— 'l-IEnlilll-l th] crrnlinutr til will with LT'IIi'l- etcluaLse reflu- fl'un with 'tl'rEh'fll'tJI-fl'll'e EEI-I'I'Il'l'lunfl'jl'. Amldtngfieh'tdte'amquirw hnm-tledge atruut sum-.- [undamentni H. nF the natmat histm‘p' {It Lyme tile-ease. and about IJ'Ie mIflu-gieat Int-er- acljems that clet-LTrr'Iine 'I'l-IhEr'E'm when Heck is high. Thus... Ltuhlglea! sludle-s en amm lamination. en pupulntln-n lif- nmu'u. u-l’ vet-lee, deer, ether hue-t5 and their tel-rs. and un l|1I.' bifllugfr' n’r tlclts and Etimyit'Irfi'rr' bacteria wt]! E1111- ttnueha-treet'prl'nurjl' lfflFEI-l'tilJ'lL'L' i:n et- Enrts t-L'u Induce the ll'hfliilentfl Inf Lyme diet-nee. lt' embgjsls are to use inc-urn Fae-durum 1a.: 'Ffll'dlL‘l. ant-E that are like- Iy tn be heated with disease-enan hell-en. uni-tum meaer can be liken tn reduce we risk These measures i.nctude blushing public-educatinnrflm'tfl in the mettths preeecling an expected inert-esc- tn Ila-cal rink.» Filming flaming signs Ln meets and nJEttiI'I-g health-care specialists whnee patients- It“: cur with in. high-Tish regimes. The interiace be- tween e-celegy and! human Hfiflllh i5 hfltl1 bread and deep. Aekmwledgment The entire-r :L‘J'sIrt-s rcI rltrrnt: run-WHEN Chum-5 Clrntcum, Elli-I: Iiftilt'h l-"elI'L'JIr flee-sing. they LtrtIeEl. Eric Schnabel: Pc- rer Tel-chin emf Jerry new? Il'nr telnet-Ir ttr'smfinjtfi nmj' assistance. Heipfrclln she Iii-m5 mull 'EIL'M .mzl'sierlts Elbe-ti Cepedur. Kirsten Hflflfi', LITIPEI' Hcim'tln. Mirflfl'fl MJHWHFIIJ lady's Setumrr tees intuil'truhlr. Ediinn'rrl' um! eerie-111ml s-Itggflrr'clns Burial-Id Fl'str. net-trite litafi‘flutli IHt-I1' rfl'f- er'e lice-sing imme the malnmlt‘l‘r'rfl lea-arty. The Miriam! Science Fmrrtrlnimn IDES F-flfiS-fl] rur-Ll' DEE PETE-EH}. thc Net-lune! Institutes Llf ll-r'flll‘ll I'HIE'I‘. Alflflffil and tire Genera! Heinsuntllec Eurpwtrrfi-rn pnnud'ni fl'neuciet suppert. T'FtI's ise eeJrJ'nlJIrticIr: tn fht'tmgn'lnll affine [teatime-qr Emsystm Etlefins. Eibtictgraphjr mlmflhl 1-...tncl L..:'|_!'-r1a|.p1andll. MET-ct- teb'r-ahc hut-1 relannrlshlpr. and dh-u'ihubam uf tun-did Iid.:- Heart Ided-Iet In Enn- rflet'lmLL-EPL |lIIIInTrllIIl I'I-fc'riI-I'J.” t-IltH-flm Wild-323- flariaue'. Alina-tel Lt. H511 1W1 The ticllulfiral .u-el Ffli‘ll quj-nie Litmus. 51' er“ HI-‘Ifi'll't-Itdr'u. I:| er.1u'n',.5..ES-l:1tu-I:Itfl.lr.ELF|la.}'cs.J.L 13am. E fnmmtdt are] I J'- l'li'ln'tt- 1931 Lyme Likewise—4| new tick-Eleni: aFH'J'LLl't‘h-I- sisTfente'flFrIJ'IT—UW- 1LHIc-lt. I. f. and H. {I Fad-.11. 'I‘I'H't' 1114.111! etheuelnraumthturnf HeWW—IU- EntruI-nHLLEJE'iL-emrI-nII-dh. rLllil-l? Helen-cu": Il.'l:|:l1'I]I-El:I:Ttl.'E ill Hlulc-Imled |:I1i.|:-'.' [mime dial-wepirnetEtL-LHnTn'fi'.-thnfll “Ill-“H'de 5&1"mein Falcn. 1L and D. Ffl-l'L t'EH'. I‘t'rlerltlil litmu- 'll'il'l: tn llfl: Illlel- in I'm-ethical pAbe n1 .1 gammhwle area. Hflu'fl'iJIll IIII'III'TI-IJ ulfF'uHr'e Hm'th 73:12-15 Fall. L'l- I‘ll-i3» PWUJ-Itlmcmtnfijrntn'mhthuuuu- I1I'. tn EttlkgjlrmiMnmlnm'nruflam-mw; adamant-:13. p-p 1'42. Hm [huh-wick. M].- EtheLlrdt-mity Im Gage. til. I. _ H. Ft fll-HEH- and ]. I5 mm. ‘I'I'Fi. himt-inj Uncut-hunch lemme: milled. wmmhIh-Unlledfih1mlnunufle .th'lll'lfl‘fiu "FISeII'FEI-Tlfi metal-Liam! HEIDI-Huh!- l'fli Lm'allJIm- elt'eanel teedmtqmmau LIleI'I-I'I'F E'JTI'IrI'I-II'E L1-n MIME Li ft'nIIII_LrI'.1Is.|'Inrrn'rIJ-:|'Fl.'1-r5|lll.l- 1:.rtr3]:|£Tl-'5.F!- lane. RE, I. F'i-umanamd 'r't' ttutgcl-nl'htf- 1'1'3'1- |_-.'nl.r hH'I'I'rJI'IiI-‘I: relnliern ell ita. tenants-n- agents. in I15 u-elues and. bust: 1n H-mth hmu'ieanrflliumpe. r'lllrn'lll'l'll Ftu'rfi'es-flillrcr animquxE-HTJIFI' 1mm, F. E. '|-'-t'-|-:.l"tlrc1r.ln_'tern.-I:tl'l:iehl ass-tum nimtmwtrialeqzc-Mt 51'1th cm “In the .rrht-tn-rgtttq'ifi. In. tint-91ml turIHMLI-vd'JT-‘l' Erwin-shell.ed.D.E5nnueil1h-n:nrfll'l'.."~l Hall-mew: {H.Hm'Tcfl'l-e Cmfn'clL'nitw sit-_L'Pl'ue. Hall-In] ‘.'-.|. l'i'i‘fl. The Hymn-Lb ct slut-FINE“ It'fll‘fimlfilul'ln between tit-J's. cleel “awhile:- lflEflhhflHlfl.w"|31fl1HIT-rwjlmrfli .LGIMW+HI.HEL1IHMWIIiaH-I- Flule Llrtisrentty |."1'I=el. .'I.‘l'.:l.IlI-L-r. T #4.. flat II '9. {Emma}; I'll-'4. 's'Etl-DD- hut-Imflurgel‘l nrlilluflH'IIP-Lllfl'fl-miflim c1_I.-- cum'n. 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'I'Ile L"L'|£|ll I'll 1 'flTfl' Elm tI.:I.I1|ta| nI-snnathlna at I. eel- [III-til- l" :I I'lllTll. lH|hJ§l'thE.£fl1lll;ll'lJ1rdfillfl1ltjflfl- 5L1lfl—Cfi1- Ehu'e'ldjltiult'hHarifl' 4rd ["1 Mfrped-u. l':|"-|'|:. spufieuxtmpmmumuulnarm-Jenna gale-threw” l"l.l:l.'l:l].lJ:lL'l'Jt'|-."H|_.'|Il.' fill-Me-I'MHI mil ll-I'I'kmflm' 11:9“- E. E'lsll'ctd. [5,[.Li.hleaerklj.l11flifl. Ithll': I'J 11m and mud: Mlleqelml L'I.'I1|-I'I_'{|l-I:Il't'- ll'I L'J'l'r-t- Ennhe-l-dmns insteillilfin'rn'rr-IEEHTF-fl-FHI twain“; h'LillL'trll'l-‘l tilt—that: IEPS'h Camenel muetthtl- UT-iIJ-fl-fi 1.1m] |~1|-n.le|:r: un while-leM Int-Eel l'-"' myrrur frmltrilln-II Jenner] m" MIMI-Mug? ejtm-lfj. I'lehmfiu, |.. and f. 5. Lira}: PHI-1 Lenn- ttiaeuE-eillmr tun-tints. Ln Emilee—11' l1'I.I- meme-1cf'fl'fi-BIII|e.t':L~I-nm_.ed.l:l Iii-LITHI- uhineancl T. '.'~l. h'LIIII'ret. FIF- New “lilrlel'lattclrdlinlsL-ntty F115:- andfl-n: U. E r']":l.'-I.HII&I|[1.'I1'I'Tt:I's. titlIII-m'E Herr ‘I'tlrk: flshu'd L'rnH'Il‘Hll-ft' ll'l'fih Emu-elm“ L‘t. Ii...:mc1 T. Mutt-m. ede- l‘iH-l- EEflLIIII'HHr Emullm'; .21' TI'rJr-lelr Ems-nee:- Hm‘rtrtzthttml lire-term}.- l'mm. ‘Lin Blake-LL. and FL 5 Dutl'fll l'i'Ftfii'slrltml- ll.l.'l_l1'_]__|l'l'l1E Lllhtie-e'hj flhflflpde-emjty anJ ' mnrmlth-I'I I.Il lit-fit ll-I'fibi- Eml'lmits't' plateau 5:1[33—IJ-tIZI. “Else-ILM. L..'.:i l-I'. Irll'urclJEL]. Parental-1.1 A HEB- Itt'li'II-Ilfl abundance IJl im- nhuucn- innit-«I Item-mu LFLeIIrI' l'IL'IiH-l-F" JI'I- Luwmgreulm'a! nlIi-ee knTHIfIt'MIIJH-I' EH lIe-Irl'lljge 5:31-31": ...
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Ecology Lyme Disease - The Ecology ef Lyme-Disease Risk...

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