Lecture_40 Molecular Evolution

Lecture_40 Molecular Evolution - Performance Feedback...

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ANNOUNCEMENTS – Apr. 30 • Next reading quiz covers Chapter 20 , due before class Fri., May 2. Chapter 25 due May 5 . • Bi-weekly review Mon. May 5, 7:30 , LR2 VAN. Simulations, constructing and using phylogenetic trees, molecular evolution. • Final exam is Thur., May 15, 7:30 – 9:30 am . Check ICON for room assignments. Polling for review session available through friday on Piazza . Get your own clicker out and ready. Loaners available if you need one. Performance, Feedback, Revision by Baba Brinkman
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2 4 Molecular Evolution
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Molecular Evolution: Learning Goals The rate of neutral mutation determines the rate of neutral evolution Relative rates of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution indicate selective forces on gene regions
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Molecular Evolution: Key Terms
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24.1 How Are Genomes Used to Study Evolution? 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% % DNA sequence difference 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Saturation in Comparisons of DNA Sequences # of substitutions per site between sequences 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 Models of sequence evolution correct for saturation in observed differences to more accurately estimate divergence. Time of Divergence (MYA)
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Clicker Question: Estimating Substitutions Which of the following observed percent difference between DNA sequences most accurately reflects the number of substitutions between the sequences? a) 1% difference b) 15% difference c) 50% difference d) 75% difference e) 100% difference Academic dishonesty policy applies to clicker use. Use a single clicker registered to your own university account.
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Clicker Question: Estimating Substitutions Which of the following observed percent difference between DNA sequences most accurately reflects the number of substitutions between the sequences? a) 1% difference b) 15% difference c) 50% difference d) 75% difference e) 100% difference Academic dishonesty policy applies to clicker use. Use a single clicker registered to your own university account.
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Rate of Evolution: Learning Goals & Objectives The rate of neutral mutation determines the rate of neutral evolution § Justify the theoretical basis of the neutral theory as the product of the rate of mutation and the probability of fixation. § Define a neutral allele in relation to its effects on fitness.
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24.2 What Do Genomes Reveal About Evolutionary Processes? The neutral theory of molecular evolution : The majority of mutations are neutral, and may fix in populations through genetic drift. Rate of fixation of neutral mutations by genetic drift is independent of population size. Rate of fixation is equal to the neutral mutation rate.
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Mutation As a Source of Substitutions loss of ancestral allele frequency of 1/2 N 2N i s the # of alleles N is # of individuals Rate of mutation: 2 N μ
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