Sample Questions Human Anatomy Zoo332

Sample Questions - _i V 1'72 v 14 15 A.3 Human Anatomy& Physiology(ZOO 332 Sample Questions The movement of deoxygenated blood into the right

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Unformatted text preview: '_.___________________________i- V 1. '72. v 14. 15. A .3, Human Anatomy & Physiology (ZOO 332) Sample Questions The movement of deoxygenated blood into the right ventricle of the heart occurs only when the ventricular pressure is less than that of the vena cavae and right atrium. Vasoconstriction of arterioles is an energy (ATP) consuming process which can result in significant changes in blood flow even if the vessel is not completely closed. A portal system involves vessels that begin as capillaries and end as capillaries. Several such systems exist in the human body and in each case the initial capillary bed is involved in absorbing substances (amino acids, simple sugars, hormones, etc.) while the second capillary bed allows intimate contact of the blood plasma with tissues supplied by the portal system. Arteries tend to be thick walled structures that carry blood away from the heart, while veins are thin walled structures which carry blood back to the heart. An additional characteristic is that arteries tend to get progressively smaller (in diameter) and more numerous, as the distance from the heart increases, thus peripheral resistance to blood flow increases as you move into smaller and smaller arterioles. The "lub" sound of the heart relates to the closure of the atrioventricular (A—V) valves of the heart, while the "dub" sound is caused by semilunar valves of the heart. Blood is actually ejected from the ventricles between the "lub" and "dub" sounds, while the ventricles are filling following "dub" and before the next "lub". A good method of detecting valve closure, and thus any murmurs, is to use a device for recording EKG. The ductus venosus allows blood flow through the liver of the fetus, but this vessel closes very soon after birth and remains nonfunctional in adults. Premature closure of this vessel would be expected to result in very serious consequences. Erythrocytes in the arterial blood of the right common carotid artery would be expected to enter the Circle of Willis . via the right Vertebral arteryand then drain from the head via the right internal jugular vein. The systolic pressure wave actually moves faster through the circulatory system than does the actual volume of blood that is pumped. Thus the pulse in your wrist indicates when the pressure wave arrives, not the ejected blood. Heartbeat is an intrinsic property of the heart. Each beat of the heart is an electrical event initiated by a cell located in the sino-atrial node. The electrical wave or activity that is initiated by this cell can be recorded (EKG), however the shape or form of the recording is dependent on the specific location of the electrodes and the size and orientation of the heart. . Since all of the blood that enters the ventricles during ventricular diastole is ejected during ventricular systole, athletic individuals almost always have a greater cardiac output than non athletes. . The blood plasma directly adjacent to the wall of an arteriole, called the boundary layer, is not moving at the same speed, if it is moving at all, as plasma in the center of the vessel. . The blood supply to the liver comes from both the hepatic portal system and hepatic arteries. . The solubility of oxygen in the plasma is reduced due to the body temperature and concentration of salts in the plasma, thus the actual amount of oxygen that can be canted in solution is very small in comparison with that carried by hemoglobin. If the heart rate of an individual was 65 beats/min, their and diastolic volume was 100 cc, their hematocrit was 45, and their end systolic volume was 30 cc, their cardiac output would suggest that the individual had an enlarged heart. In very general terms, aerobic work places greater demands upon the circulatory system than does anaerobic work. Thus aerobic athletes would be expected to exhibit a greater degree of circulatory modification than anaerobic athletes. Such modifications would be expected to include elevated hematocrit. increased heart size and heart rate, elevated total blood volume, and mean RBC hemoglobin concentration. , 0 m5 f we (6e) EV“ X“ 9,, «S ‘ \‘V 4W 2X 6‘}? “fits / W54 “Rt” ‘6‘” // Human Anatomy & Physiology (ZOO 332) Sample Questions 6. Since RBCs contain hemoglobin and hemoglobin binds oxygen, aerobic performance can be significantly elevated by injecting vast number of R805 into the blood stream in order to elevate the partial pressure of oxygen in the blood. T 17. Resting inhalation involves contraction of external intercostal muscles to raise the rib cage and reduce the intrapleural pressure thus causing a pressure gradient which results in air being forced into the lungs. 18. Hemoglobin aids in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide. F 19. Red blood cells would actually function better if they were larger, since they would have a much greater surface area across which oxygen and carbon dioxide could diffuse. This would also significantly increase the partial pressure of oxygen in the pulmonary venous blood. T 20. Carbonic anhydrase is an important enzyme involved in the formation of carbonic acid in the tissues. 4 21. The diffusion of respiratory gases from air into blood occurs due to partial pressure gradients. Thus the reason that oxygen diffuses from the alveolar air space to the blood plasma of the alveolar capillaries is that there is a partial pressure gradient between the alveolar air space and the plasma. 22. The partial pressure of oxygen in the air in Death Valley (-283 ft) is the same as the partial pressure of oxygen at the top of Mt. Whitney (>14,000 ft). 23. Air at sea level contains approximately 21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen, but is only 11% oxygen at 18,000 ft where the atmospheric pressure is 1I2 that at sea level. T24. Carbon dioxide is far more important in controlling ventilatory rate than is oxygen. Thus a 1% change in oxygen concentration will have much less impact than a similar change in carbon dioxide concentration. 25. Ventilation rate is affected by small changes in the partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. Thus we undergo tidal inhalation when the plasma becomes depleted of oxygen and enriched with carbon dioxide. F 26. The carbon dioxide (C02) we exhale is actually produced as a direct result of the anaerobic catabolism of carbohydrates. 27. Aerobic metabolism requires oxygen and results in the release of carbon dioxide, heat, ATP, and metabolic water. 28. Glycolysis is a cytoplasmic event, while aerobic metabolism is limited to the mitochondria. 29. Most sports involve both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. Thus competitive athletes must train to enhance their anaerobic capacity by increasing the hemoglobin content of their blood. 30. High energy electron pairs are released during the Kreb's Cycle and transported by electron canier molecules, like NAD and FAD, to the electron transport system or “cytochrome series". Ultimately, the electrons are used to reduce oxygen molecules within the mitochondrion. 31. The passage of electrons from one carrier to another in the electron transport system is coupled with the phosphorylation of ADP molecules. This means that ATP is only formed when the electron transport system is functioning property, ie., when sufficient oxygen is available in the cell. 32. A ($le SCUBA tank holds 72 cubic feet of air or about 2.03 x10‘5 cc (this part is true). If a diver inhaled 2.0 x1 cc per breath and had a ventilatory rate of 20 breaths per minute at 33 feet in the ocean, the tank would be G expected to provrde sufficient air for about 50 minutes. I 33. The actual amount of oxygen that can combine with hemoglobin will change due to the conditions immediately surrounding the hemoglobin molecule. Thus if the plasma pH is depressed due to carbonic acid, hemoglobin will hold less oxygen that if the acid were not resent. Likewise if the tem ' - binds less oxygen. P . perature Is elevated hemoglobin holds or Human Anatomy & Physiology (ZOO 332) Sample Questions t<34. At high altitude you can enhance the transfer of oxygen into the blood by closing the glottis and contracting the thoracic muscles to elevate the intrathoracic pressure. However, you need to be careful doing this as it could reduce blood flow to the heart and slow cardiac output. 35. The vast majority of oxygen in the blood is bound to hernoglobin(Hb), thus changes in Hb concentration may 4 cause significant changes in oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. This explains why anemic individuals have limited capacity to do aerobic work. 6 36. Closure of the aortic semilunar valve occurs during the "R" portion of the QRS complex shown in the EKG. P37. Polycythemia is a condition in which the blood has an abnormally high oxygen partial pressure. This condition is exhibited by world class marathon runners and shows how important the circulatory system is in endurance running. f 38. Breathing into a paper bag will result in an elevated plasma carbon dioxide and depressed oxygen partial pressures. 39. Hyperventilation will result in delivery of more oxygen to the tissues, thus athletic performance can be significantly improved by hyperventilation prior to competition. However, it really does not work very well because everyone does it and thus no one has an respiratory advantage. 40. Tissues which have a low metabolic rate will tend to have a lower temperature and a relatively high venous P02. 1 41. Respiratory gases diffuse into the tissues "down" a partial pressure gradient (from high to low partial pressure). 42. By using drugs to inhibit carbonic anhydrase activity, you can elevate the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the plasma. 43. If the hemoglobin dissociation curve were to move to the right, due to chemicals in the blood stream, the T amount of oxygen given to the tissues would be increased. Since DPG (within the RBC)causes the Hb dissociation curve to move to the right, it would be expected to aid in the delivery of oxygen to the tissues. 44. The total amount of oxygen carried in 100 cc of whole blood is about 20.5 cc 0:, or about half that present in the same volume of air. 45. Fully saturated arterial blood has an oxygen partial pressure of about 100 mm Hg., while venous blood is about 40 mm Hg. Since the alveolar P02 is only about 2/3's the partial pressure of oxygen in air, it would appear that pulmonary venous blood is nearly saturated with oxygen. Of course, if you elevate the alveolar P02 then the amount of bound oxygen will increase proportionately. T 46. In general, the right ventricular ejection volume is about equal to the left ventricular ejection volume. 47. Enlargement of the heart is an indication of good physical condition. «y 48. A blockage of the electrical conduction between the A-V node and the Bundle of His would be expected to result in the ventricular contraction rate being slower and perhaps even different from the S-A node rate. . .. W“ 49. Under resting conditions, the parampathetic nervous system activer regulates the heart rate by secreting acetylcholine in the region of the S-A node. 50. Catrdiac output would be greatest under the influence of the sympathetic fibers of the autonomic nervous sys em. 51. Chyme is mixed in the digestive system by muscular movements collectively called segmentation. 52. The duodenum is the shortest section of the small intestine but it is a e ‘mport ' ' hormonal control of digestion. ’ v W I ant region m terms Of the AAA .——\ Human Anatomy & Physiology (ZOO 332) Sample Questions Saw—Starch digestion begins in the mouth, but is most important in the jejunum and ileum. 54. if you were to eat a meal having an osmotic concentration of 250 mOsmlkg, water would be expected to flow V from your blood stream into the gastric contents, in order to equilibrate the osmotic gradient. 55. Protein digestion begins in the stomach with a gastric peptidase (pepsin) and continues in the small intestine ? using both endopeptidases (trypsin and chymotrypsin) which are secreted by the intestinal glands. v 56. During the absorptive stage of digestion, vast numbers of chylomicrons can be found in the lymphatic vessels of the small intestine and in the liver sinusoids. 7/ 57. The pH of chyme as it enters the jejunum is less acidic than it was when it entered the duodenum. This is because of the pancreatic sodium bicarbonate that neutralizes the gastric hydrochloric acid. T 58. The exocrine or acinar cells of the pancreas secrete trypsinogen. When activated, trypsin is a proteolytic enzyme that hydrolyses terminal amino acids. T 59. Trypsinogen is activated by enterokinase, a membrane bound enzyme produced by the duodenal mucosal cells, or by the action of active trypsin. T 60. A possible approach to dieting would be to reduce the enzymatic activity of the enzymes in the digestive tract. You would be able to digest all foods (carbohydrates, fats, proteins), but at a slower rate. 61. The gall bladder functions in storing and concentrating bile until it is released via the cystic duct. Relaxation of I the sphincter of Oddi, as a result of peristaltic contractions, causes small amounts of bile to enter the duodenum with each contraction. Bile is then mixed with the chyme as a result of the segmentation of the duodenum. F82. inactive digestive enzymes and sodium bicarbonate are secreted by hepatocytes and released into the hepatic ducts of the liver. These substances are then concentrated in the gall bladder and subsequently released into the duodenum. T 63. The ileocecal valve controls the movement of chyme from the ileum into the cecum of the ascending colon and prevents movement of chyme from the cecum to the ileum. V 64. Rugae are found in the stomach; plicae circulares are found in the duodenum; haustra are found in the colon. These anatomical modifications mammalian.— F 65. The principal functions of the stomach are storage, osmotic equilibration between the ingested food and blood, mixing of food with gastric secretions including pepsin, gastric lipase, gastrin, and hydrochloric acid. 66. Villi are located in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum where they play an important role in increasing the T effective surface area of the small intestine. The carrier proteins which are involved in active transport of glucose are located on the surface of the microvilli which in turn are located on the surface of the epithelial cells lining these regions. F 67. Mucus serves important roles in both the esophagus and large intestine where abrasion is a significant problem, but mucus is not as important in the small intestine due to the fluid nature of chyme in these regions. T— 68. The pyloric sphincter controls the movement of acidic chyme into the duodenum, thus allowing small volumes of chyme to pass into the duodenum. This is a very important step since the acid chyme will cause the release of hormones form the duodenal mucosa, and these hormones will act to coordinate the release of pancreatic and hepatic secretions, as well as, slow the activities of the stomach. V69. The passage of undigested waste from the body, defecation, is not an excretory process. T 70. inactive digestive enzymes are secreted by cells that have a well developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and many ribosomes. Zymogen synthesis in these cells occurs continuou mog . _ , sly and excess 2 en ranules r stored in cytoplasmic vacuoles until released from the cell via exocytosis. y g a e Human Anatomy & Physiology (200 332) Sample Questions 71. Most human nephrons do not have a well developed loop of Henle, but all have a well developed proximal convoluted tubule. This difference underscores the relative importance of chemical regulation of the plasma T versus water regulation. 72. Glomerular endothelial cells are Vsimilar in ultrastructure to endothelial cells lining the hepatic sinusoids, in that, both have fenestrae. However, the purpose of fenestrae in the glomerulus differs from that in the liver.‘T‘ T 73. The proximal convoluted tubule is located entirely in the cortex of the kidney and functions in both the active transport of substances from the filtrate and into the filtrate. Cells lining this tubule have the typical architecture of ion transporting cells - many microvilli and mitochondria. T 7 74. The distal convoluted tubules and collecting tubules(ducts) are both located in the renal medulla and function in ? resorption of substances from the filtrate. 1e 75. The podocytes that surround the endothelial cells of the glomerulus make up the inner wall of Bowman's capsule and serve to maintain the mechanical strength of the glomerular apparatus. T ,T 76. The cells of the collecting tubules lack extensive microvilli, yet they play an important role in the resorption of water from the filtrate. The entire process is under the influence of antidiuretic hormone from the pituitary (posterior lobe). F 77. Urine flow into the bladder is controlled by a sphincter located in the inferior portion of each ureter. The sphincter is inhibited by the peristaltic waves of the ureter in a manner similar to the inhibition of the sphincter of Oddi in the digestive tract. 78. If substance "A" is present in higher concentration in the urine than in the plasma, the substance may be actively secreted or may just be concentrated by the kidney. The critical issue would be the ratio of urine concentrations of substance "A" and inulin. If the ratio was approximately 1.0, then substance "A" is filtered, not secreted, and is just concentrated by the kidney. T 79. if a substance is filtered at a rate similar to inulin and is less concentrated in the urine than inulin, you could correctly conclude that the cells of the kidney were actively resorbing the substance from the filtrate. 80. if a substance is present in the plasma and is not present in the urine, it may be actively resorbed or not filtered at all. The critical issue would be the molecular size of the substance in question. 81. lf a substance that is osmotically active, like glucose, is present in the filtrate of the collecting duct, the rate of urine flow will increase due to a reduced water absorption in the collecting duct. This effect can be observed in uncontrolled diabetics. 82. Drinking one liter of a solution having 300 mOsm/kg of sodium chloride and 100 mOsmlkg glucose would be expected to result in a temporarily elevated urine flow (diuresis) due to the low osmotic concentration of the fluid. 'T 83. Kidney stones may block the ureter and hence result in the development of hydrostatic pressure in the pelvis of the kidney. This is can be a problem because the kidney cannot undergo significant swelling to compensate for the pressure build-up. Ultimately, the pressure in Bowman's capsule may equal the glomerular pressure. P 84. Reduction in the secretion of ADH will result in an increase in the rate of urine flow from the collecting duct. The increased flow rate is typically accompanied by a vast increase in urine concentration, because there is insufficient time to resorb ions. P 85. Elevating the blood pressure will result in proportional increases in filtration rate at the glomerulus. 86. The hypothalamus controls the secretion of hormones from the pituitary by secreting "releasing factors" into T the hypothalamus-pituitary portal system. The posterior lobe of the pituitary is not involved in this mechanism. T 87. The Fallopian tube is functionally similar to the vas deferens (ductus deferens), but has a different embryological origin. Human Anatomy & Physiology (ZOO 332) Sample Questions 88. Sperms are motile i 'did mis thus theyhamaJimitedJifespammthgueathhgfigfiMymiS- This explains why males produce so many sperms during a 24-hour period and that it takes only a few hours for sperms to be produced and to mature. 89. Circumcision involves partial removal of the prepuce. T T 90. Semen includes secretions from the seminal vesicles, prostate, and bulbourethral glands. Chemicals in semen T function in providing a chemical environment for sperms that is conducive to motility. T 91. During ejaculation, sperms do not enter the coelomic cavity of the male. However, during the process of ovulation the ovum does enter the coelomic cavity before entering the Fallopian tube, even if it is for a very brief interval. 1. 92. The plasma level of estrogen and progesterone is dependent on ovarian synthesis and release of these hormones. Thus women who have their ovaries removed will undergo a significant decline in the plasma levels of these hormones. T 93. Testosterone can be found in the plasma of normal young women, although not in large amounts. in post menopausal women, the presence of adrenal cortical testosterone may result in the development of male secondary sex characteristics. 94. The levels of LH and FSH in both males and females are controlled by thehypethalamus and secgndarily—by—the pgsteflgrglgtlejf the pituitary gland. The secretion of these hormones involves "releasing factors" which are carried through the WWW, hUWZ/latwri par/7d flgm T 95. The cells lining the Graafian follicle secrete estrogen prior to ovulation. However, after ovulation these same cells rapidly divide many times, resulting in the development of the corpus luteum, and release progesterone as their primary hormonal product. i; 96. Erection of the penis or clitoris is controlled by Wm and involves vasodilation or the arterial supply and vasoconstriction of the veins within these tissues. Thus arterial blood becomes trapped in the erectile tissue and this causes the actual erection. f 97. Vasectomy and tubal ligation are functionally the same. Both result in sterility by limiting sperm movement without altering the production of gametes or altering hormonal balance. ‘9 98. Prostaglandins are secreted by the prostate gland T 99. The prostate plays a very important role in preventing urine and semen from mixing during ejaculation. T 100. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is produced by a fertilized ovum that has implanted in the endometrium. ...
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This homework help was uploaded on 02/07/2008 for the course ZOO 332 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '04 term at Cal Poly.

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Sample Questions - _i V 1'72 v 14 15 A.3 Human Anatomy& Physiology(ZOO 332 Sample Questions The movement of deoxygenated blood into the right

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