همطافخيشلا1What is motivation?What can we learn from the needs theories of motivation?Why is the equity theory of motivation important ?What are the insights of the expectancy theory of motivation?How does goal setting influence motivation?MotivationForces within the individual forces that account for the direction, level, and persistence of a person’s effort expended at work.Direction- an individual’s choice when presented with a number of possible alternatives.Level- the amount of effort a person puts forth.Persistence- the length of time a person sticks with a given action.Types of motivation theoriesContent theoriesFocus on individual needs –that is, physiological or psychological deficiencies that individuals feel a compulsion to reduce or eliminate.Process theoriesFocus on how cognitive processes as thoughts and decisions within the minds of people influence their behavior. Theories of both types contribute to our understanding of motivation to work. But none offers a completeexplanation. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs TheoryIdentifies five levels of individual needs.Assumes that some needs are more important than others and must be satisfied before the other needs can serve as motivators.
همطافخيشلا2Needs range from self-actualization and esteem at the top, to social, safety, and physiological at the bottom.Physiological needs must be satisfied before safety needs are activated – safety needs must be satisfied before social needs are activated.The figure identifies five levels of individual needs. They range from self-actualization and esteemneeds at the top, to social, safety, and physiological needs at the bottom. The concept of a needs “hierarchy” assumes that some needs are more important than others and must be satisfied before the other needs can serve as motivators. For example, physiological needs must be satisfied before safety needs are activated; safety needs must be satisfied before social needs are activated; and so on.Some research suggests that higher-order needs (esteem and self-actualization) tend to become more important than lower-order needs (psychological, safety, and social) as individuals move up the corporate ladder. Studies also report that needs vary according to a person’s career stage, the sizeof the organization, and even geographic location.4 There is also no consistent evidence that the satisfaction of a need at one level decreases its importance and increases the importance of the next-higher need.
همطافخيشلا3ERG theory is also based on needs, but it differs from Maslow’s theory in three main respects. First, ERG theory collapses Maslow’s five needs categories into three: existence needs, desires for physiological and material well-being; relatedness needs, desires for satisfying interpersonal relationships; and growth needs, desires for continued personal growth and development.