Final Review Document

Final Review Document - Chemistry 101 Final Review Sheet...

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Chemistry 101- Final Review Sheet 1. Temperature Conversion 1. Celsius 1. See Figure 1.2 for conversion formula between F and C 2. Absolute zero = 0 degrees C 2. See Figure 1.3 for comparison of Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin scales 3. Kelvin 1. Uses same units as C 2. 0 K is the absolute lowest temperature 1. Approximately -273.15 C ; -459.67 F; 0 C 3. See Figure 1.4 for Celsius and Kelvin conversion formula 2. Energy units 1. Energy: Some basic principles 1. Energy- the capacity to do work  1. Work is done when a force is applied through a distance 2. Chemical energy- energy stored in chemical compounds and released when the compounds  undergo the chemical reactions of metabolism in the body 3. Kinetic energy- the energy of motion 1. Thermal energy 2. Mechanical energy 3. Electrical energy 4. Sound 4. Potential energy- the energy of position 1. is stored and can be converted to kinetic energy 2. Gravitational energy 3. Chemical potential energy 4. Electrostatic energy 5. The two types of energy may be converted into one another 2. Conservation of energy 1. The law of conservation of energy = the first law of thermodynamic
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Chemistry 101- Final Review Sheet 1. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed 3. Temperature and heat 1. Temperature- measure of an object’s heat energy and its ability to transfer heat 1. Determines the directionality of heat transfer 2. Heat is not the same as temperature 1. Heat is thermal energy  2. Transfers from something of a higher temperature to a lower temperature 1. Transfers depends on the material and how much material is present  3. The more thermal energy, the ore the atoms and molecules move 4. Total thermal energy = sum of individual energies of all atoms, molecules, or ions of the object 1. Depends on temperature and amount of the substance 4. Systems and surroundings 1. System- the object or collection of objects being studied 2. Surroundings- everything outside that can exchange energy with the system 5. Directionality of heat transfer: thermal equilibrium 1. Heat transfer when objects at different temperatures contact 2. Heat transfer always from object at higher temperature to object at lower temperature  3. Transfer continues until objects are at the same temperature 4. Exothermic process- heat transferred from a system to the surroundings 5. Endothermic process- heat transferred from surroundings to the system  6. Energy units 1. Joule- the SI unit for energy  2. Calorie- the heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of liquid 1 degree C 1. 1 calorie = 4.184 J 2. 1 dietary calorie = 1000 calories  3. Pressure Conversion  1. Pressure = force per area  1. Measured using a barometer 
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/14/2008 for the course CHEM 101 taught by Professor Williamson during the Fall '08 term at Texas A&M.

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Final Review Document - Chemistry 101 Final Review Sheet...

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