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Chapter 2 Outline

Chapter 2 Outline - Chapter 2 Atoms and Elements Protons...

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August 29, 2007 Chapter 2: Atoms and Elements 1. Protons, Electrons, and Neutrons: Development of Atomic Structure 1. Three subatomic particles make up atoms 1. Positive protons 2. Neutral neutrons 3. Negative electrons 2. Nucleus: 1. Protons and neutrons 2. Massive 3. Positive charge 3. Electron cloud: 1. Smaller mass 2. Surround nucleus 3. Take up most of the volume 4. Atoms have no net charge b/c the positive and negative charges balance 1. The number of electrons outside the nucleus = the number of protons within the nucleus 5. Electricity 1. Like charges repel each other and unlike charges attract each other 2. Charge is balanced 1. If a negative charge appears then a positive charge must be somewhere else 6. Radioactivity 1. Becquerel discovered that uranium ore emitted rays that could darken a photographic plate, even though the plate was covered by black paper to protect it from being exposed to light 2. Three kinds of radiation: alpha, beta, gamma 1. Behave differently when passed between electrically charged plates 1. See Figure 2.1
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2. The alpha particles are attracted to the negative plate 1. Heavier alpha particles than beta particles 2. Alpha particle has twice as large of an electric charge than a beta particle 1. +2 electric charge 3. The beta particles are attracted to the positive plate 1. The lighter beta particles are deflected less than the heavier alpha particles 2. Beta particles have lesser electric charge than alpha particles 1. -1 electric charge 4. The gamma rays aren’t deflected 1. No detectable charge or mass 2. Behave like light rays 7. Cathode-Ray Tubes and the Characterization of Electrons 1. JJ Thompson 2. Cathode ray tube: glass tube from which the air has been removed and contain two metal electrodes 1. Apply high voltage to electrodes, cathode ray flows between the ends 1. From the negative electrode: cathode, to the positive electrode: anode 2. Flow in straight lines 3. Causes glow 4. Can heat metal objects
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Chapter 2 Outline - Chapter 2 Atoms and Elements Protons...

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