Chapter 1 Outline

Chapter 1 Outline - August 29, 2007 Chapter 1: Matter and...

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August 29, 2007 Chapter 1: Matter and Measurement 1. Classifying Matter 1. See Figure 1.1 2. States of matter and Kinetic- Molecular Theory 1. Most easily observed property is state: solid, liquid, gas 1. Solid: rigid shape and fixed volume 1. Doesn’t change much with temperature and pressure 2. Liquid: fixed volume, fluid, takes shape of container 3. Gasses: fluid, volume determined by size of container 1. Varies more than volume of liquid with temperature and pressure 2. At low enough temperatures almost all matter is solid 3. Raised temperatures generally produce liquids 4. Most high temperatures generally produce gasses 5. Volume changes are common after state changes 1. Small increase in volume after melting 2. Large increase in volume after evaporation 3. Water is the exception to this rule 6. Kinetic molecular theory- all matter consists of atoms, molecules or ions that are in constant motion 1. Solids 1. particles packed together in regular array 2. Vibrate about their average positions 3. Seldom do particles move around 2. Liquids 1. Arranged randomly 2. Fluid b/c particles not confined to specific locations 3. Particles can move past each other 3. Gas
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1. Particles far apart 2. Move extremely rapidly 3. Particles collide with each other and the walls of the container 4. The higher the temperature the faster the particles move 1. Kinetic energy acts to overcome the forces of attraction 3. Matter at the macroscopic and particulate levels 1. Structure of matter at particulate level 2. Carry out experiments at the macroscopic levels 4. Pure substances 1. Cannot be separated into two or more different species by any physical technique 5. Mixtures: homogeneous and heterogeneous 1. Heterogeneous 1. May appear completely uniform but they aren’t 2. Examples 1. Blood 2. Milk 2. Homogeneous 1. Two or more substances in the same phase
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Chapter 1 Outline - August 29, 2007 Chapter 1: Matter and...

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