PRELIM-ETHICS.docx - LESSON 1: ETHICS AND MORALITY ETHICS...

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LESSON 1:ETHICS AND MORALITYETHICSDerived from the Greek wordethos,which originally meanscustomandcharacter.A branch of philosophy that studies therightness or wrongness of a humanaction.Concerned with questions of howhuman persons ought to act, and thesearch for a definition of a rightconduct and the good life.There is no single, absolute definitionof ethics.A discipline is constantly evolving as aresult of a change in socio-cultural andpolitical context.“Ethics is not the same withmorality”the former denotes thetheory of right action and the greatergood, while the latter indicatespractice, that is, the rightness orwrongness of a human action.Ethics undertakes the systematic studyof the underlying principles of morality.MORALITYMore prescriptive in nature.It tells us what we ought to do andexhorts us to follow the right way.“Morality is characterized as an ‘end-governed rational enterprise’ whoseobject is to equip people with a bodyof norms (rules and values) that makefor peaceful and collectively satisfyingcoexistence by facilitating their livingtogether and interacting in a way thatis productive for the realization of thegeneral benefit”.“Ethics is the science of morals, whilemorality is the practice of ethics.”TYPES OF ETHICS1.Normative ethicsIt seeks to set norms orstandards that regulate rightand wrong or good and badconduct.This may involve articulating thegood habits that we shouldacquire, the duties that weshould follow, or theconsequences of our behavioron others.Normally attempts to developguidelines or theories that tellus how we ought to behave.2.Meta-ethicsAlso descriptive in nature.It is allegedly constituted, atleast in part, by questions of themeanings of the various ethicalterms and functions of ethicalutterances.If a normative ethical inquiry isevaluative and prescriptive,meta-ethics is analytical anddescriptive.It aims to understand the natureand dynamics of ethicalprinciples.3.Applied ethicsThird major type.
It is the actual application ofethical or moral theories for thepurpose of deciding whichethical or moral actions areappropriate in a given situation.4.Business ethics
5.Biomedical and environmentalethics
6.Social ethicsLESSON 2: MORAL STANDARDS VERSUSNON-MORAL ONES
Why is there a need to distinguish moralstandards from non-moral ones?

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Term
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Lawrence Kohlberg

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