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Study Guide Exam 1Chapter 1: IntroductionHypothesis vs. TheoryA hypothesis is an educated guess while a theory is certainRock CycleThe loop that involves the process by which one rock changes to anotherLithosphereThe rigid outer layer of earth, including the crust and upper mantleHydrosphereThe water portion of our planetBiosphereThe totality of life-forms on earthCryospherePortions of earth where water is in solid formAtmosphereThe gaseous portion of our planet, the planets envelope of airChapter 3: Matter and MineralsNucleosynthesisThe creation of elements within starsStructure of an AtomNucleus contains the mass of an atom, and the nucleus consists of protons (+ charge), neutrons (no charge) and electrons (- charge)Atomic NumberNumber of protons in an atomMass NumberNumber of protons plus neutrons in an atomTypes of BondsIonic Bond: electrostatic connection between positive cations and negative anionsCovalent Bond: atoms sharing electronsMetallic Bond: all atoms in a substance can freely share many electronsMineral PropertiesLuster: The way a mineral reflects light (metallic & non-metallic)Color: The most unreliable indicator for mineral identificationStreak: Color of a mineral when powdered (may be a different color than the mineral)Cleavage: The tendency of a mineral to break along planes of weak bonding (to test the cleavage, you must break the mineral)Hardness: Measure of mineral’s resistance to abrasion or scratchingCrystal Form: aka crystal habit… mineral’s external geometry in unrestricted growthSpecific Gravity: Compares the weight of a mineral to an equal volume of water (not density)
Mohs ScaleDetermines the hardness of a rock using common objects Fingernail – 2.5 Copper penny – 3.5 Wire nail – 4.5 Piece of glass – 5.5 Streak plate – 6.5SiO4 TetrahedronThe most common group of minerals are thesilicates (silicon and oxygen (SiO4) are the building blocks of all silicates)Light vs. Dark SilicatesLight Silicates: non-ferromagnesian minerals; generally light in color and generally of relatively low specific gravity… examples include Feldspar, Quartz, Muscovite and ClayDark Silicates: ferromagnesian minerals; generally dark in color and relatively dense… examples include Olivine, Pyroxene, Amphibole, Biotite and GarnetChapter 4: Magma and Igneous Rocks Lava vs. MagmaLava: cools minerals at the surfaceMagma: cools minerals undergroundIntrusive vs. Extrusive