HAP101 - Anatomy and Physiology I.pdf - HAP101 - Anatomy...

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HAP101 - Anatomy and Physiology I: Chapters 1-5Print onto separate pages.CHAPTER 1ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY:-Anatomy: Structure.-Physiology: Function.LEVELS OF STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION:1.Chemical.2.Cellular.3.Tissue Level (4 main).4.Organ Level.5.System Level (11).6.Organism Level.HOMEOSTASIS:-Maintain stable internal conditions regardless of external changes.-Balance of materials and energy.-Death: Extreme/irreversible loss of homeostasis.E.g. organ failure, hypothermia, suffocation, starvation, dehydration.BODY FLUIDS: ICF AND ECF AND INTERSTITIAL FLUID:-ICF: Intercellular Fluid: Fluid within cells.-ECF: Extracellular Fluid: Fluid outside cells.Interstitial: Within tissues but outside of cells.PLANES AND SECTIONS AND DIRECTIONAL TERMS:METABOLISM:
-The chemical reactions in a body which change food into energy.-CATABOLISM: Uses energy to break down. Molecule → Atoms + ATP (Energy)E.g. food digestion.E.g. losing fat.-ANABOLISM: Uses energy to build and grow. Atoms + ATP (Energy) → Molecule.E.g.E.g. building muscle with the energy from catabolism.FEEDBACK SYSTEM:-Receptors to the control center to the effector to (if negative) homeostasis.-RECEPTORS: send input of change into the control center.-CONTROL CENTER: evaluates input and generates output command.-EFFECTOR: produces output that changes the controlled condition.-NEGATIVE: Brings body back to set point. Uses homeostasis.E.g. body temperature changes. When the body temp. is above normal, the bodyreleases the heat through sweat and when it is below normal, the body shivers towarm up.-POSITIVE: Reinforces a change.E.g. childbirth. More release of hormones = more contractions and pressure =more release in hormones = more contractions and pressure.2 CONTROL SYSTEMS: NERVOUS AND ENDOCRINE SYSTEM:-NERVOUS SYSTEM: detects changes from a balanced state and sends messages inthe form of nerve impulses to organs that can counteract the changes.-ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: corrects changes by secreting signaling/communicatinghormones into the blood.BODY CAVITIES AND CAVITY MEMBRANES:-CAVITIES: spaces in the human body.Function: protect delicate organs. Allows organs to change in shape and size.-2 MAIN CAVITIES: dorsal (head) and ventral (diaphragm and abdomen).-DORSAL CAVITIES: the head cavity.-VENTRAL CAVITIES:THORACIC: diaphragm (chest).-PERICARDIAL: surrounds heart. (peri = around, cardi = heart).-PLEURAL: 2 spaces, surround each lung.-MEDIASTINUM: doesn’t include lungs. Separates lungs.
ABDOMINOPELVIC: abdomen (stomach).-THORACIC AND ABDOMINAL CAVITY MEMBRANES:MEMBRANE: filters out what can and can’t come in.PARIETAL: lines.VISCERAL: covers.SEROUS MEMBRANE:-Lines the walls of thorax (cavity surrounded by rib cage and diaphragm isinferior to) and abdomen.-Covers viscera (organs in the cavities).PLEURA MEMBRANE:PERICARDIUM MEMBRANE:PERITONEUM MEMBRANE:CHAPTER 2IONIC AND COVALENT BONDS:-Ionic: cations and anions.

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