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philosophy 230 exam2 winter04 Bethel

philosophy 230 exam2 winter04 Bethel - A c w Bethel I ”...

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Unformatted text preview: A. c. w. Bethel ' I ” j“; 2‘ an. » PhIIOSOPhY 230 flse print your name here Exam ll -— Winter, 2004 VOCABULARY: In problems (1) through (12) match the following terms with their definitions: (A).A PriorlKnowledge.( .. ,._. . e...(C.),.Externalism.,.(!B.)!Eallibi'l'lsm.. .. , . Was. (W. (W.Wm. (WW. (BB-)~Primary Qualities. (WWW (Wm-Qualities a ) (CE) Skepticism. (DH-Em. 1"“ The idea that conceivably we can always be wrong about anything. D Qualities that really are in external objects the way that we perceive them. The idea that all of our knowledge has got to be built up fi‘om some basic truths that aren’t themselves justified by anything else. The idea that the justifications of our knowledge claims depend on our being able to express the evidence in words. (This implies that lower animals and infants can’t know anything.) A C, Direct rational insight into the truth. Ideas that are built into the structure of our minds. The idea that all we ever perceive are ideas in our minds, and that we infer that the causes of some of these ideas are objects in the external world. a \4\ \5‘ Knowledge that is based solely on reason, independent of any sense experience. x The idea that only my mind and my own mental states exist; I can’t know whether any other minds exist, or whether any material objects exist, including my own body. R Qualities caused in our perceptions by external, material objects but which are not in those objects themselves. The proposition that if A = B, then every property of A is a property of B, and conversely. if! The state of being of, for or about something else, the way that thoughts, for example, are directed toward objects BELIEF AND DOUBT: In problems (13) through (20) select the one best answer. X What is our working definition of lmowledge? (A) Whatever we clearly and distinctly understand is knowledge. (B) Justified true belief is knowledge. (C) Whatever cannot be doubted is knowledge. 1 What is one assumption that Descartes makes about knowledge in Meditation l? (A) Knowledge cannot come from sense experience. (B) Knowledge must be compatible with religion. (C) All knowledge must be indubitable and infallible. 5. What is Descartes’ project in Meditation 1? (A) To doubt everything that can be doubted. (B) To prove that knowledge depends on the existence of God. (C) To prove his own existence. K What does Descartes think that the dream argument shows? (A) There is no sure way to tell whether you are dreaming. (B) You can’t be sure that 8 x 7 = 56 or that the Pythagorean theorem is true. (C) Your senses can deceive you even about what you see clearly and close-up. What does Descartes think that his “evil genius” argument shows? (A) God might not exist. (B) You can’t be sure that 8 x 7 = 56 or that the Pythagorean theorem is true. (C) Your senses can deceive you even about what you see clearly and close-up. A. C. W. Bethel — Philosophy 230 -- Exam ll ~- Winter. 2004 - page 2 18. According to Descartes, why can’t I be mistaken about my own existence? (A) I have to exist in order to doubt or be deceived. (B) God would not allow the evil genius to deceive me in ways that] could never fix. (C) I can doubt my body, but my body is not me. 19. According to Descartes, why do I sometimes fall into error? (A) God is perfect, but all deCeit is due to weakness or malice, which are imperfections. (B) My will can exceed my understanding. (C) My nature is somewhere between God’s perfection and nothingness. 20. ~ In Meditation 4, what kind of freedom doesDescartes think is involved in our believing mathematical truths? . (A) Even though we clearly and distinctly understand them, we still have the option to choose to believe them or not. (B) We have no option but to believe what we clearly and distinctly understand, but we are still free because we are rational. (C) God guarantees that whatever we clearly and distinctly understand is true. L THE SELF, GOD AND SCIENCE: In problems (21) through (29), select the one best answer. 21. According to Descartes, what am I? , (A) A bundle of sense experiences. (B) A being who understands, wills, and perceives. (C) An idea in the mind of God. 22. What is one point that Descartes is making with the example of a piece of wax in Meditation 2? (A) The sensory properties of the wax change when you heat it. (B) Even if sense experiences don’t tell us about the world, they are still states of mind. (C) Reason, not sense perception, enables us to know the wax, and ourselves. 23. What is one objection to Descartes’ claim in Meditation 2 that he knows that he exists? . (A) Maybe only a thought exists, not thinking being. (B) He’s arguing in a circle, using God to prove his existence then using his own existence to prove God. (C) Maybe he’s only dreaming that he’s thinking. 24. What does Descartes mean by objective reality in Meditation 3? (A) The representational content of my ideas. (B) Things as they really are, apart fiom my ideas. (C) Whatever it is that causes our ideas. 25. Where does Descartes think that our idea of an infinite Being comes from? (A) We create it by thinking away the limits of power, goodness, etc., that we have experienced. (B) It is a convention that people have contrived. (C) It is innate, put into our minds by God. 26. According to Descartes in Meditation 3, why can’t I explain my existence by saying that my parents caused me? (A) The existence of my parents depends on the existence of something else; the real question is, “Why does anything exist?” (B) There must have been a first moment in time when nothing existed yet. (C) I don’t yet know whether my parents exist. 27. In Meditation 5, how does Descartes support the proposition that God exists by His very nature? (A) My ideas have got to come from somewhere. (B) An infinite series of causes doesn’t explain why anything exists in the first place. (C) A Being who does not exist is not perfect. 28. What evidence does Descartes think that he has for the existence of material objects in Meditation 6? (A) I can’t help believing that external objects cause my sense perceptions, and God is not a deceiver. (B) All that I ever perceive are images in my mind; I have to infer the existence of the material world. (C) My sense experiences motivate me: thirst motivates drinking, hunger motivates eating, etc., and these motives help to preserve my life. 29. In Meditation 6, how does Descartes think that mind and body are related? (A) Only the mind exists; the body might be an illusion. (B) I am in my body the way that a pilot is in a ship (or the way that a driver is in a car). (C) I feel things directly in my body, and I can move my body at will, without doing anything else first. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. A. C. W. Bethel -- Philosophy 230 -— Exam ll -- Winter, 2004 -- page 3 W. IDEAS OF MIND AND BODY: ln problems (30) to (33), identify the meanings of the following terms: (A) Epiphenomenalism. (B) lnteractionism. (C) Materialism. (D) Qualia. (E) Mind. The inner, subjective way that things look or feel or sound to a person. YD Stimulation of our material sense organs causes our perceptions, and acts of will in our immaterial minds cause our bodily movements. 6 The mind is identical with the brain, and mental states are identical with brain states. Mental states are immaterial b -roducts of the o .erations of the brain, but the don’t cause behavior. MIND AND BODY: In problems (34) through (40), select the one best answer. What is the point of premising that the mind can be introspected, but the body cannot be introspected? (A) It is an argument for substance dualism. (B) It shows that Leibniz’ Law does not apply in intentional contexts. (C) It shows that terms can have the same meanings even if they refer to different things. What is the point of the example of the little girl not knowing that water is H20? (A) It shows that the example of Maria the Color Scientist confuses metaphysics with epistemology. (B) It shows that personal identity might be epiphenomenal. (C) It shows that Leibniz’ Law does not hold in intentional contexts. What is one problem with interactionism? (A) It implies that somewhere in your brain, physics is false, which seems unlikely. (B) It makes our minds powerless spectators at our own lives, unable to influence our behavior. (C) It confuses metaphysics with epistemology. What is one problem with epiphenomenalism? (A) It implies that somewhere in your brain, physics is false, which seems unlikely. (B) It makes our minds powerless spectators at our own lives, unable to influence our behavior. (C) It cannot give an adequate account of how specific areas of the brain are associated with specific thoughts. According to materialists, what is the true relation between mind and body? (A) The terms “mind” and “body” refer identically even though they have different meanings. (B) The terms “mind” and “body” have the same meanings even though they refer to different things. (C) There is no such thing as the mind; perceptions, feelings, and thought processes don’t really exist. What is the point of the example of Maria the Color Scientist? (A) Red might look to me the way that green looks to you. (B) Physiology can’t explain all that there is to qualia. (C) Qualia are epiphenomenal. ‘ What was the Babe Ruth video example supposed to prove? (A) Two words can have different meanings even though they refer identically. (B) Becoming acquainted with something isn’t the same thing as learning new information about something. (C) Physiology can’t explain qualia. Your written questions are on the back of this page. A. C. W. Bethel - Philosophy 230 -- Exam ll -- Winter, 2004 -— page 4 WRITTEN QUESTIONS: Answer each of the following questions in the space provided. Make sure that you answer the questions fully, and be sure that you write your answers in such a way that I will know what you are trying to say — don't make me guess. You may use scratch paper to work out your answers. Each question is worth eight points. 4 ' 1. Explain what Descartes thinks goes on in our minds when we believe something in Meditation .4. , DQSCOuthS $95an arm to balsam. saws-Mpg m most— puma/v2. moi unwram.m1 mice or film aawl’nj tats vyov Gib/Q i Mun. LAM 9&wa mm USDU ’rb undflx$¥ , . Wm M 0x9. simquosKj WW ‘60” com Weave. Sewing 2. Ex lain exactl what substance dualism is. . Slim—lodges doowsm is an...» ngmhon ‘0‘)“ m Maxi} 0G «We. mod '5 m wax/j, Dmcarvas “amid W ”M W \S Ox Way-m4 obltzut‘ and ‘tkmw enter all“ 30‘2— MWQJ‘XL Ha one Stafizs. M «m2. m'xrxd is 0m tmwumi Descav+25 Sims W H2, has-VS; W «Weir mangl'c‘ \odii (LIE; Wu‘jfifirj mos—t V0442. CK. (13.031, Wabv m mus+ mo; M; 0k CQDSQ. T’vom me. he, comm W M V0.3 m option: 90v Ms (La/om: Mmsalé , Q PM“; being, ar an "tern‘t’re, @34th 1* wold hes-\- We. W Wmsslfi arm Rinks. WW5 9w m sofas. “20$th ‘Hmugg‘o/ H’ was (nod who m3 tug CW1 . 4. Explain how Descartes thinks that we can avoid all mistakes and errors in Meditation 4. DQSCOJ/‘htg mung M we CQn (wk/old cut masmm and Uvovs b‘é using ‘h/OO th-iqg, U‘OifiL or kudom and 90““. WE. $We‘; W M We Qq‘wlhgg Mus-b \QQ. Simqummuslxj VrW—r *0 LnovJ ”Owl/K . ammo. or quom wan W ”13°” +0 VUQQJVQ/ and Ni“ com COUJ'SQ. up) to UW\, Hem We. saw Hub?) we C/LQOu/Uj“ dighneflg orvmysi-and is flue...“ ' xplain escartes’ idea of the essential properties of material obj eets. 9:23ka $0.63, M an Maxim oijUtS cafe Qvlwwtj Cymihm‘i. Mao/nary w M OMB (Jr-33325 m+h onpu‘hQS- The, reason M 0M5 (Dh‘i’OJth Wk pyopyhes is W051“ M W ...
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