philosophy Phil230 midterm2 preview winter04 Bethel

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Unformatted text preview: .5‘ 359°.“ 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. MIDTERM ll PREVIEW — PHILOSOPHY 230 A. C. W. BETHEL VOCABULARY: In problems (1) through (15), match each term with its definition. A) A priori knowledge. B) A posteriori knowledge. (,0) Externalism. (H) Fallibilism. MFoundationalism. ika) lnnate ideas. lnternalism. (AB) lntentionality. (AB) intuition???) Leibniz’ Law (DE) Primary Qualities. (BET Representational Theory of Perception (98) Seconda Qualities (92) Skepticism. (DE) Sollpsism. The idea that conceivably we can always be wrong about anything. 2 D Moo“ {bi \TSW‘ The idea that no one can ever know anything. CZ (Sm/(75 (AS-m3 The idea that the justifications of our knowledge claims depend on our being able to express the i ‘ B evidence in words. (This implies that lower animals and infants can’t know anything.) AC (on hay medal“ The idea that the justifications of our knowledge claims depend on our beliefs being caused in the right way, whether we can articulate them in words or not. (This allow that lower animals and infants can know things.) C Lexk WMCSM) The idea that all of our knowledge has got to be built up from some basic truths that aren’t themselves justified by anything else. E “’00 We no.1 ism} ' The idea that only my mind and my own mental states exist; I can’t know Whether any other minds exist, or whether any material objects exist, includin my own body. Dc: (50“ V3 is m3 Direct rational insight into the truth. A Z L\(\‘\'\_)"\ Hon Ideas that are built into the structure of our minds. (*5 Ohm lm> Knowledge that is based on sense experience. 5 A- ? °vai Knowledge that is based solely on reason, independent of any sense experience. p. V”: or t The state of being of, for or about something else, the way that thoughts, for example, are directed toward objects. A0 (intanfiorm'lfij) The idea that all we ever perceive are ideas in our minds, and that we infer that the causes of some of these ideas are objects in the external world. %2 (re/Preéambm Wino 6% H65 Qualities caused in our perceptions by external, material objects but which are not in those PM objects themselves. Q0 6ng QUGLA thfiB . Qualities that really are in external objects the way that we perceive them. 60 (P (M W qw‘tih 05> The proposition that‘if A = B, then every property of A is a property of B, and conversely. EEC, genial/ME, \ L—OJA/ . BELIEF AND DOUBT: ln problems (16) through (24) select the one best answer. What is our working definition of knowledge? (A) Whatever we clearly and distinctly understand is knowledge. @Justified true belief is knowledge. (C) Whatever cannot be doubted is knowledge. Which of the following propositions do Pyrrhonian skeptics accept? (A) They think that they can prov that knowledge is impossible. (B) They think that no one can doubt his or her own existence. @ They think that maybe knowledge is possible, but that so far everything they have seen is dou tful, and so it isn’t knowledge. What is one assumption that Descartes makes about knowledge in Meditation l? (A) Knowledge cannot come from sense experience. (B) Our beliefs are justified if they are caused in the right ways.® All knowledge must be indubitable and infallible. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. A. C. W. Bethel - Philosophy 230 - Midterm ll preview — page 3 What is another point of the piece of wax example? (A) In knowing the wax, we also know even better our own natures as rational beings. (B) We know that other minds exist, not just hats and cloaks, so solipsism is false. (C) We know that our minds are not material objects, so materialism is false. What does Descartes think that his essential nature is in Meditation 2? (A) A bundle of ideas, sense perceptions, memories, doubts and beliefs, which are the different parts of the mind. @A unitary thinking being that reasons, understands, wills and perceives. (C) An immaterial mind that causally interacts with a material body. What does Descartes mean by “objective reality”? @The representational content of our ideas; What our ideas are of or about. (B) Things that really do exist in the external world, in contrast to ideas that exist only subjectively, in our minds. (C) Things that we clearly and distinctly understand. According to Descartes, can his idea of God be something that he assembled by combining his experiences of finite Wisdom, finite goodness and finite power, then thinking away the limit? (A) No, because he understands God to be a single, unitary being, not a collection of attributes. (B) No, because his idea of God is caused by God, not by sense experience. (C) No, because our idea of God is innate. What assumption is Descartes making when he says that everything must have a cause? (A) He assumes that God exists as the cause of everything. (B) He assumes that his own existence must have a cause. (C) He assumes that the structure of the universe is rational, and that there are no brute facts. What conclusion does Descartes draw from the premise that there must be as much formal reality in the cause as there is objective reality in the effect? (A) Only God could have caused my existence. (B) Only God could have caused my idea of God. (C) Material objects must exist as the causes of my representations of them. What is meant by the first cause argument? (A) The world must have had a beginning in time. @Everything in the world must have a rational explanation. (C) There must be a reason why there is something rather than nothing. According to Descartes, why can’t I explain my existence by saying that my parents caused me? (A) The existence of my parents depends on the existence of something else; the real question is, “Why does an thing exist?” (B) There must have been a first moment in time when nothing existed yet. I don’t yet know whether my parents exist. r What is the ontological argument that Descartes presents in Meditation 5? @We can prove that God exists by examining the meaning of the word “God.” (B) There cannot be an endless regress of things that depend on something else for their existence. (C) Only God could have caused my idea of God. What is one objection to Descartes’ ontological argument in Meditation 5? (A) Maybe not everything has a cause — maybe some things are just brute fact. (B) If God did not exist, then He would not be perfect. @Existence is not part a description of what anything is. , 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. A. C. W. Bethel — Philosophy 230 — Midterm ll preview — page 5 IDEAS OF MIND AND BODY: ln problems (46) to (50), identify the meanings of the following terms: (A) Epiphenomenalism. (B) lnteractionism. (C) Leibniz'Law. (D) Materialism. (E) Qualia. (AB) Substance Dualism. The mind is an immaterial, thinking thing, and the body is a material, non—thinking thing. The mind is identical with the brain, and mental states are identical with brain states. Stimulation of Our material sense organs causes our perceptions, and acts of will in our immaterial minds cause our bodily movements. Mental states are immaterial by-products of the operations of the brain, but they don’t cause behavior. The inner, subjective way that things look or feel or sound to a person. MlND AND BODY: ln problems (51) through (60), select the one best answer. What is the point of premising that the mind can be introspected, but the body cannot be introspected? (A) It is an argument for substance dualism. (B) It shows that Leibniz” Law does not apply in intentional contexts. (C) It shows that terms can have the same meanings even if they refer to different things. What is the point of the example of the little girl not knowing that water is H20? (A) It shows that the example of Maria the Color Scientist confuses metaphysics with epistemology. (B) It shows that personal identity might be epiphenomenal. (C) It shows that Leibniz’ Law does not hold in intentional contexts. - What is one problem with interactionism? (A) It implies that somewhere in your brain, physics is false, which seems unlikely. (B) It makes our minds powerless spectators at our own lives, unable to influence our behavior. (C) It confuses metaphysics with epistemology. ‘ What is one problem with epiphenomenalism? (A) It implies that somewhere in your brain, physics is false, which seems unlikely. (B) It makes our minds powerless spectators at our own lives, unable to influence our behavior. (C) It cannot give an adequate account of how specific areas of the brain are associated with specific thoughts. According to materialists, what is the true relation between mind and body? (A) The terms “mind” and “body” refer identically even though they have different meanings. (B) The terms “mind” and “body” have the same meanings even though they refer to different things. (C) The mind depends on the body for its existence, but the mind does not have the power to cause any neural events in the material brain. What is the point of the example of Maria the Color Scientist? (A) Red might look to me the way that green looks to you. (B) Physiology can’t explain all that there is to qualia. (C) Qualia are epiphenomenal. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. A. C. W. Bethel - PhiIosophy 230 - Midterm ll preview — page 2 What is Descartes’ project in Meditation 1? @To doubt everything that can be doubted. (B) To prove that knowledge depends on the existence of God. (C) To prove his own existence. In Meditation 1 what reason does Descartes give for doubting what he perceives up close and clearly? (How does he doubt that he is really seeing a hand in front of his face, for example?) (A) It might be an optical illusion, like a mirage. (B) God might deceive him whenever he tries to reason. Q He might be dreaming. In Meditation 1 what reason does Descartes give for doubting mathematical propositions, such as 8 x 7 = 56? (A) He might be dreaming when he tries to do math. @God (or an evil genius) might confuse him whenever he tries to do math. (C) Maybe there is no God, in which case there is no truth in anything. In Meditation 4, what problem does Descartes find in the idea that all of our errors in reasoning are due our trying to understand things that are beyond our abilities? (A) We cannot hope to discover God’s purposes in nature. (B) Privation is the absence of something that ought to be present. (C) Some errors (such as mistakes in balancing the checkbook) are things that we ought to be able to get right. In our discussion of Meditation 4, What kind of freedom is involved in our believing mathematical truths? (A) Even though we clearly and distinctly understand them, we still have the option to choose to believe them or [email protected] have no option but to believe what we clearly and distinctly understand,:but we are still free. (C) God guarantees that whatever we clearly and distinctly understand is true. In Meditation 4, what does Descartes think that we ought to do in order to avoid all mistakes in reasoning? (A) Believe only what you can’t help believing. (B) Don’t try to understand things that are beyond our powers of understanding, such as God’s purposes. @Believe only what is innate in your understanding, because God would not put anything false into your mind. SELF AND GOD: In problems (25) through (38), select the one best answer. In Meditation 2, what is the first thing that Descartes says that he knows for sure? (A) He cannot doubt that there is a God and that God is not a deceiver. (B) Whether he is dr arning or awake, he cannot doubt that he is experiencing colors, shapes, sounds, odors, etc. He cannot be mistaken about his own existence. What is one objection to Descartes’ claim in Meditation 2 that he knows that he exists? (A) Maybe only a thought exists, not thinking being. @He’s arguing in a circle, using God to prove his existence then using his own existence to prove God. (C) Maybe he’s only dreaming that he’ s thinking. What is one point of the piece of wax example that Descartes develops in Meditation 2? (A) Reason demonstrates that material objects exist after all. (B) Our senses deceive us into thinking that the piece of wax has changed. Even though the piece of wax has changed, we know that it is the same it with our reason, no with our senses. A. C. W. Bethel - Philosophy 230 — Midterm ll preview — page 7 WRITTEN QUESTIONS: Answer each of the following questions in the space provided. Make sure that you answer the questions fully, and be sure that you write your answers in such a way that I will know what you are trying to say - don’t make me guess. You may use scratch paper to work out your answers. On the actual exam there will be five questions like these; l have included more here to show you the range of possible question topics. Each question will be worth eight points, for a total of forty points. W taco can cost». SWHUSM. Hz (10be awaiting (Km-{TV 5?)! his ‘GBUWOW “From W2. PM win \‘Tj to prove. (GOOJ'UL doubles Wgwrfiw Cs bottom 2. Explain what Descartes means by the idea ofa cause. 02!»:ch r\.. Dzscou’res wo‘brwfi Reluct- (nod gs 05} Queens/D but?) not an QSSmelj O? dJSHCJF PO-Yts.®Mré {MO‘F (mad. \5 noi‘oun {m Osmbmd ports log m3. Edd noJr emanate. m ’ictno.‘ or? ewod.meg om 56°55'th CRQSQ—S‘ Oi— W5 Em I, H’s loot"istrvxswstll‘cwa(23¢s new. 3. Explain the alternative to Descartes’ claim that everything must have acause. SO l-ES 1:; D +2.5 ; ‘ . aw W3 ha. 0:4 s’rs, mendtkmfl mos+ we. 5 meansg, An tram—re. burg WM him. We only , 5' (bold ‘ ‘ . ’ ‘ 9:3 . . We; message Lino Wl+900ldmh 4.' According to Descartes, what mental faculties are involved in our believing something? is.“ inf-{mi he. mmo Qaeo\fi<.$ involved are. u_>'\\\ and lamina. choice, of vadowx.$fi 0"de To WKUQ- Scouti'kiwa and “vi“ was vtou’rv qu+axe. 5. Explain how Descartes thinks that we can avoid all error. Wires W W Meyer {6 thj édazsfimjij » Quciuml {s sor‘ruzl’tdnfi. bomsul’king Com-k COW fiom mwngfi (Sm i‘é \‘PS 5%)“? .VIJMQNQJ/ :5 Wm ‘0a (Sled pm mt MWQfi)‘ 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. A. C. W. Bethel — Philosophy 230 — Midterm II preview - page 4 What is the Cartesian Circle? (A) The circle of friends who reviewed Descartes’ manuscript for him and who provided the objections to which Descartes [email protected] The claim that Descartes has begged the question by using clear and distinct ideas to prove God then using God to guarantee the truth of his clear and distinct ideas. (C) The claim that Descartes has begged the question by arguing both that God’s existence depends on Descartes’ existence and that Descartes’ existence depends on God. PERCEPTION AND THE EXTERNAL WORLD: ln problems (39) through (45) select the ohe best answer. What conclusion does Descartes draw from our inability to say whether heat is the only absence of cold, or cold is only the absence of heat, or whether both are positive qualities in themselves? (A) We have no clear and distinct ideas of these sense perceptions, so they don’t tell us about what really exists in the material world. (B) Heat and cold are nothing but the motions of geometrical shapes, not perceptions in the mind. (C) There is no way to tell dreams from waking reality. ' According to Descartes, what is the essential nature of material objects? (A) They exist exactly the way that we perceive them, because God is not a deceiver. @ They have only mathematical properties. (C) They are nothing but collections of sense perceptions. What evidence does Descartes think that he has for the existence of material objects? (A) My sense experiences motivate me: thirst motivates drinking, hunger motivates eating, etc., and these motives help to preserve my life. (B) All that I ever perceive are images in my mind; I have to infer the existence of the material world. (C) I can’t help believing that external objects cause my sense perceptions, and God is not a deceiver. What is the Cartesian theater? (A) The location of dream experiences and irnaginings, as opposed to direct perceptions of material objects in the external world. (B) The location of all my perceptions in my mind; I never directly perceive material objects in the external world. (C) The location of material objects, which are geometric shapes in motion. According to Descartes, how can I tell dreams from waking reality? (A) I can use one sense modality to check up on another: a stick that looks bent in the water feels straight, for example. @Dreams will always be inconsistent in some way. (C) We know by the natural light of reason whether we are asleep or awake; there is no need to look for evidence. What is the representational theory of perception? (A) Material objects cause perceptions in my brain, and my brain causes inferences in my mind. (B) Material objects cause perceptions in my mind, and my mind affects material objects. Material objects cause perceptions in my mind, and I infer the properties of material objects from those perceptions. ' According to Descartes, how are mind and body related? (A) There is a two-way causal traffic between mind and brain. (B) Everything that happens in the material world has a purely physical explanation, so our bodily movements are caused by our nerves, not by thoughts in an immaterial mind. (C) I am in my body the way that a sailor is in a ship. A. C. W. Bethel Philosophy 230 - Winter 2004 Answers to Written Questions on Exam ll 1. Explain what Descartes thinks goes on in our minds when we believe something in Meditation 4. Descartes’ thinks that believing something requires first that you understand it (you can ’t believe something if you don’t know what it is) and then that you aflirm it, which is an exercise of your will. Thus two difi’erent faculties of the mind are involved in belief: understanding + willing. Two common errors: (i) Some students confused this with question (4); question (I) is not a question about the test for knowledge or justified true belief (ii) Some students thought that the faculty of sense perception plays an essential role in believing something. It doesn ’t. 2. Explain exactly what substance dualism is. The mind is an immaterial, thinking thing, but the body, including the brain, is a material, non- thinking thing. Thus mind and body are two radically distinct kinds of things. There are various theories of how these two dijfirent things are related: interactionism, parallelism; but you didn ’t need to develop these here. However some students tried to define substance as interactionism, which was a mistake. 3. Explain the alternative to Descartes' claim that everything must have a cause. Descartes thinks that a cause is a rational explanation of something, so to know the cause is to know why something has got to be the way it is. The alternative is to say that some things just are, without any rational explanation. The name for this is “brute fact, ” but for fill] credit you needed to say what” brute fact” means. Some students mistook this question for the difi’erent question, “What is an alternative to Descartes’ account of causation? ” It is true that some philosophers have claimed that causation is nothing but a correlation between two types of events, with the cause being the earlier type of event and the efirect the later one. But unless you went on to say that these correlations are brute facts, not rational explanations, you didn ’t get full credit. 4. Explain how Descartes thinks that we can avoid all mistakes and errors in Meditation 4. Believe only what you can’t help believing, that is to say, believe only what you clearly and distinctly understand You didn ’t have to define what “clear and distinct” means for Descartes, nor did you have to write out the entire argument to get fltll credit, though many students did do this. 5. Explain Descartes’ idea of the essential properties of material Objects. According to Descartes, material objects are essentially mathematical objects; specifically, they have size, shape, motion, and number. You didn ’t need to tie this to the primary-secondary distinction in Descartes ’ representational theory of perception, but if you did...
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