Astro 101 reading notes.docx - WEEK 1 Chapter 1- science...

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WEEK 1Chapter 1- science and the universe: a brief tour1.1 The nature of astronomy-Astronomy: the study if the objects that lir beyond our planet Earth and the processes bywhich these objects interact with on another-Science is a progress report-Astronomy is a observational, historical science1.6 A tour of the universe-Interstellar dust: gas and dust collect into clouds , becoming the raw materials for futuregeneration of stars-Dark matter: materials that made up the galaxy that we cannot observe with ourinstrumentsWiki: Big picture, -Terrestrial planets: rocky planets-Light-second: the distance light travels in one second-Solar system: the system comprising the Sun and all of the object orbiting around it-Astronomical unit(AU)-Jovian Planets: giant gas planets, orbit at a greater distances and have more widelyspaced orbits-Oort clouds: vast region surrounding the Sun, solar system included-We are in Milky way galaxy-Galaxy clusters, the milky way is a member of the virgo cluster-Hubble volume: the observable universeWiki: Short history of the universe-Time scales to compare the period time over the events occursBig bang theory-“Top down” (cluster, then break down into stars and galaxies) vs the “bottom up” (smallparts accumulated into stars)-Fission: Converting heavy elements into light elements-Fusion: the other way around-Supernovae: occurs when a massive star reaches the end of its life which is very brightand hot and therefore forms the heaviest elementsSun and earth
-For it to be suitable for life need 1) organic matter, 2) liquid water, 3) a source of energy,and 4) appropriate temperatures-Cambrian Explosion: the period of rapid development in the complexity of lifeWEEK 2Chapter 2 (section 2.1-2.3)- observing the sky: the birth of astronomy2.1- the sky above-Geocentric view: earth-centered universe view until European Renaissance-Zenith: top of the dome, the point directly above your head-Horizon: where the dome meets the earth-Celestial sphere: what the early Greeks regarded the sky as-Meteors (shooting stars): are not stars at all, they are cosmic dust hitting the Earth’satmosphere-Celestial poles: where the sky turn in opposite directions of these poles-Celestial equator: lies halfway between the celestial poles-Circumpolar zone: region where stars can never set-The sun position to human’s sky change day to day-Ecliptic: the path the sun appears to take around the celestial sphere each year-Not just the Sun, but the moon and each of the planets are also changing their positionsfrom day to day-FIxed stars(those maintained fixed patterns among themselves) andwandering stars(or planets)-The moon has the fastest apparent motion; it completes a trip around the sky in about amonth-Zodiac: the planets, the sun, and the moon are always found in the sky with a narrow18-degree wide belt, centered on the ecliptics2.2- ancient astronomy-

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Term
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Solar System, Planet

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