1. Monarchical Hereditary Rule Importance of Stability Subject to Rule of Law (more or less) LOUIS XIV link Ruled France 1638-1715 VERSAILLES o Importance of Display o "Lingua Franca" o Art and culture Importance of royal births Mary II (England) 1689-1694 Queen Anne (Great Britain) 1702-1714 o 2. Aristocratic Hereditary Elite European-wide BLENHEIM PALACE (England) Influence of French Court on Style/Architecture Privileges taken for granted 3. Christian: Established Churches Born into Christianity Parish Church link Local Rites of Passage Religious minority: Jews 4. Agricultural Wealth Created from Landownership
Work Done in Agriculture Review Questions Name Europe's maritime empires, and continental empires. What were the basic characteristics of political rule in eighteenth century Europe? What were some advantages of the hereditary principle? Why was Louis XIV important? Why were royal births so important? THE OLD REGIME: Characteristics Monarchical Aristocratic Christian (Established Churches) Agricultural (Unearned Income: rent, "dues") Patriarchal (Family) Imperialist (Maritime) o Religion o State Power o Wealth o Slavery Ethnocentric o Racism Use of Violence and Law Capital Punishment: Spectacle Corporal Punishment: Legal System Employers Slaveowners Heads of Household Deference/Resistance REBELLION (Localized) Wage Labor/Peasantry o Bread Riots/Feudal Dues o Repression
Serf o Forced Labor o PUGACHEV'S REBELLION-- 1773-1775 Slave Revolts o Maroons How Do Things Change? Ideas Religion Economics o ownership o technology Population growth/decline Politics War Ideas: The Enlightenment Skeptical Scientific o Isaac Newton 1642-1727 o Physics o Simple Laws of Nature o Importance of Calculus o Incorporation of infinity o New ways to measure motion, space Nature and Nature's laws lay hid in night: God said, "Let Newton be!" and all was light. Alexander Pope's epitaph for Isaac Newton Secular Thought Anti-Clerical Use of human reason to draw conclusions about nature & society Locke and the "Social Contract" Use of reason to learn about God, i.e. "natural religion".
Conflict with Established Christian Churches Churches Roman Catholicism The Papacy
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