History of India and Indian National Movement

History of India and Indian National Movement - 2 History...

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History of India and Indian National Movement [ A complete book for competitors ] {This book is very usefull for those competitors who appearing in the Civil Services, State PSCs, Bank PO, SSC Exams, NDA, CDS, Railway, and others oneday exams.} 2 History of India and Indian National Movement | Ancient Indian History Indian Prehistory The fossils of the early human being have not been found in India. A hint of the earliest human presence in India is indicated by stone tools of about 250,000 BC obtained from the deposits. However, recent reported artifacts from Bori in Maharashtra suggest the appearance of human beings in India around 1.4 million years ago. From their first appearance to around 3000 BC humans used only stone tools for different purposes. This period is, therefore, known as the Stone Age, which has been divided into Paleolithic (early or Old Stone) Age, Mesolithic (Middle Stone) Age, and Neolithic (New Stone) Age. The Paleolithic Age in India (500,000 BC – 8000 BC): In India it developed in the Pleistocene period or the Ice Age.b. The earliest traces of human existence in India go back to 500,000 BC. The Paleolithic sites are spread in practically all parts of India except the alluvial plains of Indus and Ganga. The people of this age were food gathering people who lived on hunting and gathering wild fruits and vegetables. Man during this period used tools of unpolished, undressed rough stones and lived in cave and rock shelters. They had no knowledge of agriculture, fire or pottery of any material. They mainly used hand axes, cleavers, choppers, blades, scrapers and burin. Their tools were made of hard rock called ‘quartzite’. Hence Paleolithic men are also called ‘Quartzite Men’. Homo sapiens first appeared in the last of this phase. It has been pointed out that Paleolithic men belonged to the Negrito race. The Paleolithic Age in India has been divided into three phases according to the nature of stone tools used by the people and also according to the nature of change in the climate – Early or lower Paleolithic, Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic. The Early Paleolithic Age covers the greater part of the Ice Age. Its characteristic tools are hand axes, cleavers and choppers. Such tools have been found in Soan and Sohan river valley (now in Pakistan) and in the Belan Valley in the Mirzapur district of UP In this period climate became less humid. Middle Paleolithic Phase is characterized by the use of stone tools made of flakes mainly scrapers, borers and blade like tools. The sites are found in the valleys of Soan, Narmada and Tungabhadra rivers. In the Upper Paleolithic Phase, the climate became warm and less humid. This stage is marked by burins and scrapers. Such tools have been found in APKarnataka, Maharashtra, Bhopal and Chhota Nagpur plateau.
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