FNAR 201 Lecture Notes Ch 3 - Chapter 3 Egypt Under the...

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Chapter 3Egypt Under the PharaohsGoalsUnderstand the evolution of Egyptian culture and its relationship to the NileRecognize stylistic conventions of Egyptian artUnderstand aspects of the New Kingdom as reflected in its artsIdentify Egyptian pylon temples and their purposeChronology of Ancient Egypt3500-2575 BCE: Predynastic and Early Dynastic2575-2040 BCE: Old Kingdom2040-1550 BCE: Middle Kingdom1550-1070 BCE: New Kingdom1070-30 BCE: First MillenniumIn predynastic period Egypt divided between:Upper Egypt (southern part, near Nubia)Lower Egypt (northern part, more fertile, important city Heirakonpolis)Ancient EgyptRich with ample resources of stone suitable for carvingMany of its monuments are tombs that glorify kings (pharaohs), believed to be di-vineFor a list of gods, see page 57 in the textbookOldest artworks are from HierankopolisoMural paintings oA two-foot palette that commemorates the unification of Upper and LowerEgypt Predynastic ArtPeople boats and animals, detail of a watercolor copy of a wall painting from tomb 100 at Hierakonpolis, Egypt, Predynastic. 3500-3200 BCE. Paint on plaster, entire painting 16’ 4” x 3’ 7 3/8”. Egyptian Museum, Cairo.Palette of King NarmerPalette = stone slab with a circular depression (for make-up)Commemorates the unification of Upper and Lower EgyptoUnification ends Predynastic eraPortrays king Narmer, a pharaoh of the 1stof Egypt’s 31 dynastiesPalette of King Narmer (left, back; right, front), from Hierakonpolis, Egypt, pre-dynasticoTop: two heads of a cow with a woman’s face (goddess Hathor mother of all pharaohs)Between heads a hieroglyph spelling the pharaoh’s name
oCenter: Narmer, depicted large and wearing the high, bowling-pin shaped crown of Upper EgyptServants carry his sandalsProfiles view of heads, legs and arms, frontal view of eyes and tor-sooAbove right: a falcon with human arms, the god Horus, the king’s protec-torHorus takes captive a hieroglyph of the land of Egypt (man's head and papyrus)Enemies under the kind’s feetThe elongated necks of two felines form a circular depression that would have held eye make-upIntertwined necks may signify the unification of the two parts of EgyptTop register: Narmer reviews the beheaded bodies of the enemiesEarly Dynastic Architecture (Mostly tombs of Pharaohs)Mastaba Tombs

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