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EXAM 2 immune systems.docx - EXAM 2 - immune systems...

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EXAM 2- immune systemsImmunity– state in which the body is protected from infectious diseaseInimmune system, a complex network of cells, tissues and chemicals that fightinfection and kill organisms when they invade the body2 categories of immune protection, all of which help protect the body frominfectious diseasesoInnateoAdaptiveImmunity: 2 intrinsic defense systemsInnate (nonspecific) system responds quickly & consists ofoFirst line of defense (surface defense) – intact skin and mucosae prevententry of microorganismsoSecond line of defense (internal defense) – antimicrobial proteins,phagocytes, and other cellsInhibit spread of invaders thru out bodyInflammation is its hallmark and most imp mechanismAdaptive (specific) defense system – aka the acquired immune systemoThird line of defense – mounts attack against particular foreign substanceso2 types: humoral and cellularTakes longer to react than the innate systemWorks in conjunction w the innate systemImmune system overview: innate and adaptive defensesImmunity– resistance to diseaseo3 lines of defense against disease1stand 2ndline: nonspecific immunity (innate mechamisms)1stline – surface barriers (e.g. skin, mucuous membranes)2ndline – internal defenses (e.g. phagocytes, fever, NK cells,antimicrobial proteins, inflammation)owhen surface protection is breachedoInflammation = tell-tale sign of innate defense activation3rdline: specific immunity (specificity + memory) – adaptive defensesHumoral immunity – the ‘special ops’ forces of your body (e.g. Bcells)Cellular immunity – attack specific foreign substances (e.g. Tcells)oSlower to mount an adaptive defenseoButtttt, much more potentCommon blood cells in immune function:oInnate 2ndline – basophil, neutrophil, monocyte/macrophageoAdaptive 3rdline – lymphocytes:B-lymphocyte (humoral immunity)T-lymphocyte (cellular immunity)Surface barriers (first line of defense)Skin, mucous membranes & their secretions make up 1stline of defenseoKeratin in the skin:
Presents formidable physical barrier to most microorganismsIs resistant to weak acids and bases, bacterial enzymes, and toxinsMucosae provide similar mechamical bariersEpithelial chemical barriersoEpithelial membranes produces protective chemicals that destroymicroorganismsSkin acidity (pH of 3-5) inhibits bacterial growthSebum contains chemicals toxic to bacteriaStomach mucosae secrete concentrated HCl and protein-digestingenzymesSaliva and lacrimal fluid contain lysozymeMucus traps microorganisms that enter the digestive and respiratorysystemsRespiratory tract mucosaeoMucus-coated hairs in the nose trap inhaled particlesoMucosa of upper respiratory tract is ciliatedCilia sweep dust- and bacteria-laden mucus away from lowerrespiratory passagesInternal defenses (second line of defense)The body uses nonspecific cellular and chemical devices to protect itselfoPhagocytesoNatural killer (NK) cellso

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Term
Fall
Professor
StephenSecor
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