# Chapter 8 - Chapter 8 Introduction to Hypothesis Testing...

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Chapter 8 Introduction to Hypothesis Testing PowerPoint Lecture Slides Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences Eighth Edition by Frederick J. Gravetter and Larry B. Wallnau

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Chapter 8 Learning Outcomes
Tools You Will Need z -Scores (Chapter 5) Distribution of sample means (Chapter 7) Expected value Standard error Probability and sample means

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8.1 Hypothesis Testing Logic Hypothesis testing is one of the most commonly used inferential procedures Definition: a statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate the validity of a hypothesis about a population parameter
Logic of Hypothesis Test State hypothesis about a population Predict the expected characteristics of the sample based on the hypothesis Obtain a random sample from the population Compare the obtained sample data with the prediction made from the hypothesis If consistent, hypothesis is reasonable If discrepant, hypothesis is rejected

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Figure 8.1 Basic Experimental Design
Figure 8.2 Unknown Population in Basic Experimental Design

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Four Steps in Hypothesis Testing Step 1: State the hypotheses Step 2: Set the criteria for a decision Step 3: Collect data; compute sample statistics Step 4: Make a decision
Step 1: State Hypotheses Null hypothesis ( H0 ) states that, in the general population, there is no change, no difference, or is no relationship Alternative hypothesis ( H1 ) states that there is a change, a difference, or there is a relationship in the general population

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Step 2: Set the Decision Criterion Distribution of sample outcomes is divided Those likely if H0 is true Those “very unlikely” if H0 is true Alpha level, or significance level , is a probability value used to define “very unlikely” outcomes Critical region(s) consist of the extreme sample outcomes that are “very unlikely” Boundaries of critical region(s) are determined by the probability set by the alpha level
Figure 8.3 Note “Unlikely” Parts of Distribution of Sample Means

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Figure 8.4 Critical region(s) for α = .05
Learning Check A sports coach is investigating the impact of a new training method. In words, what would the null hypothesis say?

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Learning Check - Answer A sports coach is investigating the impact of a new training method. In words, what would the null hypothesis say?
Learning Check Decide if each of the following statements is True or False.

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