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Unformatted text preview: 10/6/21, 5:31 PM Introduction to Chemistry | Simple Book Production LOGIN Introduction to Chemistry TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction to Chemistry The Study of Chemistry The Scientific Method Three States of Matter Substances and Mixtures Elements and Compounds Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter Physical and Chemical Changes to Matter Standard Units (SI Units) Double and Triple Standard Free Energy Covalent Bonds Changes Physical Properties of Free Energy Changes in Covalent Molecules Chemical Reactions Representing Valence Free Energy Changes Electrons in Lewis for Nonstandard States Symbols Pressure and Free Writing Lewis Symbols Energy for Atoms Free Energy and Work Introduction to Lewis Structures for Covalent Electrochemistry Molecules Balancing Redox Lewis Structures for Equations Polyatomic Ions Voltaic Cells Electronegativity and Electrolytic Cells SI Unit Prefixes Oxidation Number Volume and Density Formal Charge and Temperature Lewis Structure Scientific Notation Resonance Significant Figures The Incomplete Octet Electrochemical Cell Notation Standard Reduction Potentials 1/10 10/6/21, 5:31 PM Exact Numbers Introduction to Chemistry | Simple Book Production Odd-Electron Molecules Predicting Spontaneous Accuracy, Precision, and The Expanded Octet Error Converting from One Unit to Another Strategy for General Problem Solving Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Early Ideas about Atoms The Law of Conservation of Mass The Law of Definite Bond Energy Bond Enthalpy Bond Lengths Advanced Concepts of Chemical Bonding Direction of a Redox Reaction Predicting if a Metal Will Dissolve in Acid Thermodynamics of Redox Reactions The Nernst Equation Applying the VSEPR Concentration of Cells Model Free Energy and Cell Table of Geometries Potential Lone Electron Pairs Equilibrium Constant Dipole Moment and Cell Potential Dry Cell Battery Composition Bond Polarity The Law of Multiple Percent Ionic Character Mercury Battery Proportions and Bond Angle Lead Storage Battery John Dalton and Atomic Explanation of Valence Other Rechargeable Theory Bond Theory Batteries Cathode Rays sp3 Hybridization Fuel Cells Millikan's Oil Drop sp2 Hybridization Predicting the Products Experiment sp Hybridization of Electrolysis Overview of Atomic Hybridization in Structure Molecules Containing Atomic Number and Double and Triple Bonds Electrolysis of Water Mass Number Bonding and Electrolysis Isotopes Antibonding Molecular Stoichiometry Orbitals Corrosion Bond Order Preventing Corrosion The Periodic Table Molecules Ions Introduction to Bonding Ionic Bonds Electrolysis of Sodium Chloride Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (LCAO) Nuclear Chemistry Homonuclear Diatomic Discovery of Molecules Radioactivity 2/10 10/6/21, 5:31 PM Introduction to Chemistry | Simple Book Production Covalent Bonds Heteronuclear Diatomic Modes of Radioactive Molecular Formulas Molecules Decay Empirical Formulas Polyatomic Molecules Rate of Radioactive Formulas of Ionic Compounds Naming Ionic Compounds Liquids and Solids The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter Decay Half-Life of Radioactive Decay Dating Using Dipole-Dipole Force Radioactive Decay Hydrogen Bonding Balancing Nuclear Ion-Dipole Force Equations Bases Dispersion Force Nuclear Binding Energy Naming Hydrates The Structure and Naming Molecular Compounds Naming Acids and and Mass Defect Properties of Water Particle Accelerator Inorganic Compounds Surface Tension Transuranium Elements Introduction to Capillary Action Nuclear Fission Hydrocarbons Crystal Structure: The Atomic Bomb Packing Spheres Nuclear Reactors Crystal Structure: Nuclear Fusion Naming Familiar Mass Relationships and Chemical Equations Average Atomic Mass Mass Spectrometry to Measure Mass Avogadro's Number and the Mole Converting between Closest Packing Determining Atomic Structures by X-Ray Crystallography Ionic Crystals Covalent Crystals Moles and Atoms Molecular Crystals Molar Mass of Metallic Crystals Compounds Bonding in Metals: The Converting between Electron Sea Model Mass and Number of Doping: Connectivity of Moles Semiconductors Percent Composition of Amorphous Solids Compounds Fusion Reactors The Hydrogen Bomb Structural Determination Study of Photosynthesis Isotopes in Medicine Acute Radiation Damage Increased Cancer Risk from Radiation Genetic Defects from Radiation Measuring Radiation Exposure 3/10 10/6/21, 5:31 PM Introduction to Chemistry | Simple Book Production Nonmetallic Elements Combustion Analysis Liquid to Gas Phase Writing Chemical Transition Equations Supercritical Fluids Balancing Chemical Liquid to Solid Phase Equations Transition Amount of Reactants Solid to Gas Phase and Products Transition Molar Ratios Heating Curve for Water Hydrogenation Mole-to-Mole Major Features of a The Hydrogen Economy Conversions Phase Diagram Elemental Boron Mass-to-Mass Interpreting Phase Trihalides: Boron- Conversions Diagrams Halogen Compounds Mass-to-Mole Conversions Limiting Reagents Aqueous Reactions Electrolyte and Solutions Intermolecular Forces and Solutions Solutions and Entropy Changes Nonelectrolyte Solutions Solutions and Heats of Water’s Solvent Hydration Properties Molarity Electrolytic Properties Molality Precipitation Reactions Mole Fraction and Mole Solubility Percent Molecular, Ionic, and Solid Solubility and Complete Ionic Temperature Equations Gas Solubility and pH, Buffers, Acids, and Temperature Bases Solubility and Pressure Brønsted Acids and Vapor Pressure of Bases Nonelectrolyte Solutions Acid-Base Titrations Freezing Point Depression Atomic Size Types of Bonds Properties of Hydrogen Binary Hydrides Isotopes of Hydrogen Borates: Boron-Oxygen Compounds Boranes: BoronHydrogen Compounds Properties of Carbon Carbides Carbon Oxides and Carbonates Allotropes of Carbon Silicate Units, Silicate Chains, Silicate Sheets Properties of Quartz and Glass Aluminosilicates Properties of Nitrogen Nitrogen Compounds Properties of Phosphorus Phosphorus Compounds Properties of Oxygen 4/10 10/6/21, 5:31 PM Introduction to Chemistry | Simple Book Production Oxidation States Boiling Point Elevation Oxides Types of Redox Osmotic Pressure Uses of Oxygen Reactions Vapor Pressure of Ozone Balancing Redox Electrolyte Solutions Equations Medical Solutions: Redox Titrations Colligative Properties Dilutions of Solutions Hydrophilic and Solution Stoichiometry Hydrophobic Colloids Gases Chemical Kinetics Substances that Exist as Measuring Reaction Rates Gases SI Units of Pressure Reaction Stoichiometry Boyle's Law: Volume and The Rate Law Properties of Sulfur Properties of the Halogens Halogen Compounds Halogen Uses Metals Occurrence of Metals General Properties of Metals Periodic Trends in Pressure First-Order Reactions Charles' and Gay- Second-Order Reactions Extractive Metallurgy Lussac's Law: Temperature and Volume Zero-Order Reactions Metallic Properties Steelmaking and The Integrated Rate Law Refining Half-Life Conductors and Amount The Collision Theory Semiconductors The Ideal Gas Equation Factors that Affect Alloys Avogadro's Law: Volume Density Calculations Molar Mass of Gas Gas Stoichiometry Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure Collecting Gases Over Water Kinetic Molecular Theory and Gas Laws Reaction Rate The Alkali Metals The Arrhenius Equation The Alkaline Earth Transition State Theory Metals Rate Laws for Aluminum Elementary Steps Titanium, Chromium, Rate-Determining Steps and Manganese Overall Reaction Rate Iron, Cobalt, Copper, Laws Nickel, and Zinc Steady-State Approximation Transition Metals 5/10 10/6/21, 5:31 PM Introduction to Chemistry | Simple Book Production Distribution of Molecular Experimental Physical Properties and Speeds and Collision Determination of Atomic Size Frequency Reaction Rates Lanthanides and Root-Mean-Square Homogeneous Catalysis Actinides Speed Enzyme Catalysis Gas Diffusion and Effusion Chemical Equilibrium The Effect of the Finite Equilibrium Volume The Equilibrium The Effect of Constant Intermolecular Forces Heterogeneous and Van der Waals Equation Multiple Equilibria Real Gases Specialized Equilibrium Air Pollution Ozone Depletion Constants Reaction Quotients Expressing the Thermochemistry Types of Energy Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions The First Law of Equilibrium Constant of a Gas in Terms of Pressure Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations Thermodynamics Le Chatelier's Principle Internal Energy and The Effect of a Catalyst Enthalpy Exothermic and Endothermic Processes Thermochemical Equations Specific Heat and Heat Capacity Constant-Volume Calorimetry Acids and Bases Iron Copper Chromium Manganese Silver Mercury Oxidation Numbers of Metals in Coordination Compounds Naming Coordination Compounds Isomers in Coordination Compounds Coordination Number, Ligands, and Geometries Bonding in Coordination Compounds: Valence Bond Theory Crystal Field Theory The Arrhenius Definition Octahedral Complexes The Brønsted-Lowry Tetrahedral and Square Definition of Acids and Planar Complexes Bases Color Acid-Base Properties of Magnetic Properties Water Reactions of Acid Dissociation Coordination Constant (Ka) Compounds 6/10 10/6/21, 5:31 PM Introduction to Chemistry | Simple Book Production Constant-Pressure pOH and Other p Scales Metallurgy Calorimetry Strong Acids Chelating Agents Standard States and Weak Acids Chemical Analysis Calculating Percent Coloring Agents Dissociation Biomolecules Standard Enthalpy Changes Standard Enthalpy of Reaction Hess's Law Heat of Solution Present Sources of Energy Energy Consumption Environmental Problems Associated with Fossil Fuel Use New Energy Sources Introduction to Quantum Theory Strong Bases Weak Bases Base Dissociation Constant Diprotic and Polyprotic Reactions of Alkanes Concentrations of Cycloalkanes Polyprotic Acids Binary Acids Oxoacids Naming Alkenes and Alkynes Properties of Alkenes Salts that Produce Basic Reactions of Alkenes Solutions and Alkynes Overview of the AcidBase Properties of Salt Interference and Basic and Amphoteric Diffraction Hydroxides Planck's Quantum Lewis Acid and Base Theory Molecules The Photoelectric Effect Metal Cations that Act Emission Spectrum of as Lewis Acids Wavelength Life Calculating Equilibrium Spectrum The de Broglie The Chemical Basis for Alkanes Electromagnetic The Bohr Model Functional Groups Acids Properties of Waves and Salts that Produce Light Acidic Solutions the Hydrogen Atom Organic Chemistry Naming Aromatic Compounds Properties of Aromatic Compounds Reactions of Aromatic Compounds Functional Groups Alcohols Ethers Carboxylic Acids Acid-Base Equilibria Homogeneous versus Esters Amines Heterogeneous Solution Equilibria Polymers 7/10 10/6/21, 5:31 PM Introduction to Chemistry | Simple Book Production The Uncertainty The Common Ion Effect Types of Biological Principle Preparing a Buffer Macromolecules Description of the Solution with a Specific Lipid Molecules Hydrogen Atom pH Phospholipids Indeterminacy and Calculating the pH of a Probability Distribution Buffer Solution Maps The Henderson- Steroids Carbohydrate Molecules Amino Acids Quantum Numbers Hasselbalch Equation The Pauli Exclusion Calculating Changes in a Principle Buffer Solution Wave Equation for the Relative Amounts of Hydrogen Atom Acid and Base Electron Orbitals Absolute Concentrations The Phase of Orbitals of the Acid and DNA and RNA Conjugate Base The DNA Double Helix Buffer Range and Types of Synthetic Development of the Capacity Organic Polymers Periodic Table Strong Acid-Strong Base Condensation Reactions Titrations Chemistry and the Real Weak Acid-Strong Base World Titrations Earth's Atmosphere Strong Acid-Weak Base Aurora Borealis and the Titrations Periodic Properties Periods 1 through 3 Transition Metals The Bottom of the Periodic Table Periodic Table Position and Electron Polyprotic Acid Peptide Bonding between Amino Acids Protein Structure Denaturation and Protein Folding Aurora Australis Configuration Titrations Glow of Space Shuttles Electron Configuration Acid-Base Indicators Polar Ozone Holes of Cations and Anions Solubility Product Volcanoes General Rules for Molar Solubility and The Greenhouse Effect Assigning Electrons to Relative Solubility Photochemical Smog Predicting Precipitation Indoor Pollution: Radon Atomic Orbitals The Building-Up (Aufbau) Principle Reactions The Effect of pH on Indoor Pollution: CO and CO2 Solubility 8/10 10/6/21, 5:31 PM Introduction to Chemistry | Simple Book Production The Shielding Effect and Ion Separation by Indoor Pollution: Effective Nuclear Fractional Precipitation Formaldehyde Charge Effect of a Common Ion Diamagnetism and on Solubility Paramagnetism Complex Ion Equilibria Variation of Physical and Solubility Properties Across a Period The Solubility of Amphoteric Metal Variation of Physical Hydroxides Properties Within a Solubility Product Group Electron Configurations and Magnetic Properties of Ions Ionic Radius Ionization Energy Electron Affinity General Trends in Chemical Properties The Noble Gases (Group 18) Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding Ionic Bonding and Electron Transfer Lattice Energy Principle and Qualitative Analysis Thermodynamics The Three Laws of Thermodynamics Spontaneous and Nonspontaneous Processes Microstates and Entropy Changes in Energy Standard Entropy Changes in the Entropy of Surroundings The Third Law of Thermodynamics and Absolute Energy Formulas of Ionic Compounds Ionic vs Covalent Bond Character Comparison between Covalent and Ionic Compounds 9/10 10/6/21, 5:31 PM Introduction to Chemistry | Simple Book Production Single Covalent Bonds COPYRIGHT This courseware includes resources copyrighted and openly licensed by multiple individuals and organizations. 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