midterm 2 notes set

midterm 2 notes set - CHAPTER 5 Nutrition, cultivation, and...

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CHAPTER 5 Nutrition, cultivation, and isolation of microorganisms 5.1 Fundamental aspects of Diversity 5.2 Uptake of nutrients into cells WHAT ARE THE VARIOUS TYPES OF MICROORGANISMS BASED ON NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENT? - Energy Source – phototroph and chemotroph - Carbon Source – autotroph and heterotroph - Photoautotroph, Photoheterotroph, Chemoautotroph, and Chemoheterotroph Prokaryotes are diverse in nutrition requirement and metabolic capability. All microorganisms need a carbon source and an energy source. CARBON SOURCES - Autotroph: inorganic carbon (CO2), from atmosphere - Heterotroph: organic carbon (ex. Humans and plants use organic C source), glucose ENERGY SOURCES - Phototroph: Energy from light - Chemotroph: Energy from inorganic/organic chemicals ENERGY SOURCE: CARBON SOURCE: Light Chemicals Inorganic photoautotroph chemoautotroph Organic photoheterotroph chemoheterotroph Obligate: the microbe is restricted to a particular C or E source Ex. An obligate photoautotroph Humans are obligate for Energy because we cannot get E from light. Obligated to chemicals Facultative: the microbe can utilize more than one source Ex. Many chemoauto trophs can also grow as chemohetero trophs CARBON is very important! MICROBIAL NUTRITION [MAJOR GROUPS OF NUTRIENTS FOR MICROORGANISMS] CARBON
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- gives cell structures - sources range from CO2 and CH4 to any naturally occurring C compound NITROGEN - integral in amino acids [dna], nucleotides, and cell wall components - some prokaryotes can fix N2 [from atmosphere] reducing it to ammonia - most heterotrophs require nitrogenous materials [amino acids] to grow MACRONUTRIENTS O XYGEN, H YDROGEN, S ULFUR, P HOSPHORUS, IRON ( Fe ) needed in large quantities -Minerals: abundant and trace elements -Growth factors OXYGEN - acquired from H2O, O2, or organic compounds - used in ALL organic materials - used in aerobic respiration HYDROGEN - acquired from H2O or organic molecules - used in ALL organic materials - protons (H+) involved in production of ATP SULFUR - acquired from medium as a sulfate salt (MgSO4) - used as a component in cysteine, methionine, B vitamins - involved in electron transport system PHOSPHORUS - used in nucleic acids, phospholipids, and HIGH energy compounds ABUNDANT ELEMENTS POTASSIUM ( K ), SODIUM ( Na ), MAGNESIUM ( Mg ), CALCIUM ( Ca ), and IRON ( Fe ) - involved in enzyme activity (cofactors) - work as counter-ions to balance (-) negative charge - iron is a constituent of electron transport system TRACE ELEMENTS Ex. Zinc ( Zn ), Cobalt ( Co ), Nickel ( Ni ), Copper ( Cu ), Selenium ( Se ), Molybedenum ( Mo ), Boron ( B ), and Tungsten ( Tu )
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- involved in enzymatic reactions (cofactors) GROWTH FACTORS - specific, small organic compounds - cannot be synthesized by the cells - three most common types: vitamins, amino acids, purine, and pyramidine o you need vitamins to grow HOW DO CELLS UPTAKE NUTRIENTS?? Diffusion
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2008 for the course PHY 122 taught by Professor Svetlana during the Winter '07 term at Cal Poly Pomona.

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midterm 2 notes set - CHAPTER 5 Nutrition, cultivation, and...

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