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University of GuyanaHealth SciencesFacultyCOURSE:HSC 1101 - HOMEOSTASISLECTURER:Dr. Andrew Hutson MBBSWeek 11:Nervous system: neurons, neurogliaand neurophysiology. Synaptictransmission. Gross anatomy of the spinal cord, spinal nerves and reflexes.
Functions of the NervousSystem1.Sensory inputInformation gathered by sensory receptors about internal and externalchanges.2.IntegrationInterpretation of sensory input.3.Motor outputActivation of effector organs (muscles and glands) produces a response.
Figure 11.1Sensory inputMotor outputIntegration
Divisions of the Nervous SystemCentral nervous system (CNS)Brain and spinal cordIntegration and command centerPeripheral nervous system (PNS)Paired spinal and cranial nervescarry messages to and from the CNS
Peripheral Nervous System(PNS)Two functional divisions1.Sensory (afferent) divisionSomatic afferent fibers—convey impulses fromskin, skeletal muscles, and jointsVisceral afferent fibers—convey impulses fromvisceral organs2.Motor (efferent) divisionTransmits impulses from the CNSto effector organs
Motor Division of PNS1.Somatic (voluntary) nervous systemConscious control ofskeletal muscles
Motor Division of PNS2.Autonomic (involuntary)nervous system (ANS)Visceral motor nerve fibersRegulates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glandsTwo functional subdivisionsSympatheticParasympathetic
Figure 11.2Central nervous system (CNS)Brain and spinal cordIntegrative and control centersPeripheral nervous system (PNS)Cranial nerves and spinal nervesCommunication lines between theCNS and the rest of the bodyParasympatheticdivisionConserves energyPromotes house-keeping functionsduring restMotor (efferent) divisionMotor nerve fibersConducts impulses from the CNSto effectors (muscles and glands)Sensory (afferent) divisionSomatic and visceral sensorynerve fibersConducts impulses fromreceptors to the CNSSomatic nervoussystemSomatic motor(voluntary)Conducts impulsesfrom the CNS toskeletal musclesSympathetic divisionMobilizes bodysystems during activityAutonomic nervoussystem (ANS)Visceral motor(involuntary)Conducts impulsesfrom the CNS tocardiac muscles,smooth muscles,and glandsStructureFunctionSensory (afferent)division of PNSMotor (efferent)division of PNSSomatic sensoryfiberVisceral sensory fiberMotor fiber of somatic nervous systemSkinStomachSkeletalmuscleHeartBladderParasympathetic motor fiber of ANSSympathetic motor fiber of ANS
Histology of Nervous TissueTwo principal cell types1.Neurons—excitable cells thattransmit electrical signals
Histology of Nervous Tissue2.Neuroglia (glial cells)—supporting cells:Astrocytes (CNS)Microglia (CNS)Ependymal cells (CNS)Oligodendrocytes (CNS)Satellite cells (PNS)Schwann cells (PNS)
AstrocytesMostabundant,versatile, andhighly branched glial cellsCling to neurons, synaptic endings, and capillariesSupport and brace neurons
AstrocytesHelp determine capillary permeabilityGuidemigration of young neuronsControl the chemical environmentParticipate in information processing in the brain
Figure 11.3a(a) Astrocytes are the most abundantCNS neuroglia.

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