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Chapter 13 - Chapter 13 5:40:00 PM Childhood Pathology It...

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Chapter 13 12/12/2007 17:40:00 Childhood Pathology: It is important to know that defining it is not the same as defining adult pathology. It is hard to determine a simple definition because children are always growing and changing. Context and the continuum between normal and abnormal behavior are crucial to defining. Definitions must take into account what behaviors are developmentally appropriate for a child of a given age. (Gesell) Behavior that is normal at one age may be highly abnormal at another age Standards exist that help define “normal” behavior at each age. Arnold Gesell: a development psychologist who highlights the core concept of the importance of context in defining and understanding abnormality. It should be considered within the context of what is developmentally appropriate for a child of a given age Proposed Maturationist along with G Stanley Hall Anna Freud: Gave one of the most useful definitions of childhood pathology stating that Child psychopathology can be defined as behavior hat interferes with normal, progressive, development. Maturationist: A theory of child development in which specific development stages are believed to unfold in a natural and predictable way. James Watson: he believed that children’s minds where blank slates at birth which were then shaped entirely by external experiences. He proposed Behaviorism G. Stanley Hall: Proposed Maturationist approach to child development along with Arnold Gesell Behaviorism: A theoretical perspective that emphasizes the influence of learning, via classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and modeling, on behavior. Proposed by Watson
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The 5 Prominent DSM-IV-TR Childhood Disorders Mental Retardation: Significantly impaired intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior o Genetic abnormalities: Down syndrome (caused by having 3 21 st chromosomes) Metabolic deficiencies such as: Phenylketonuria (PKU): the liver fails to produce and enzyme that breaks down a common amino acid. The amino acid, if not broken down, is toxic and causes mental retardation Tay-Sachs disease: occurs when a child receives a recessive gene from both parents. It causes the deterioration of the immune system and a childhood death. Prenatal and Postnatal complications like maternal rubella during pregnancy, fetal alcohol syndrome, or shaken baby syndrome after birth o Sociocultural and family factors: Inadequate nutrition Lack of environmental stimulation o Interventions: Normalization: aims to promote the most normal function possible by teaching academic, language, social, and daily living skills. Special Education: classes tailored to individuals with learning impairments or learning disabilities, Inclusion Classrooms: when children with special academic needs are taught in the same classes as normally functioning children Sheltered workshops: supervised work settings for people suffering from mental retardation and other impairments.
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