1_cognitivescience

1_cognitivescience - What is Cognitive Science? Definition...

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1 What is Cognitive Science? Definition - 2 parts • what is studied? – problems solved with “brains” / “minds” • how is it studied? – interdisciplinary way What is studied? • problems solved by the mind/brain • So, what does the mind/brain do? “It ought to be generally known that the source of our pleasure, merriment, laughter and amusement, as of our grief, pain, anxiety, and tears is none other than the brain. It is specially the organ which enables us to think, see, hear, and to distinguish the ugly and the beautiful, the bad and the good, pleasant and unpleasant….it is the brain too, that is the seat of madness and delirium, of the fears and the frights that assail us, often by night, but sometimes even by day; it is there where lies the cause of insomnia and sleep-walking, of thoughts that will not come, forgotten duties, and eccentricities…. .” Hippocrates (circa 425 BC) Some problems solved by the brain and mind. internalizing the physical world • light -> electromagnetic radiation- vision • sound -> sound pressure level - audition • chemical -> olfaction, gustatory, trigeminal • mechanical energy -> touch • temperatures -> “temperature sense” • gravitity, acceleration, -> vestibular sense Sensation and Perception
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2 Other energy? • infrared -> rattlesnakes • echolocation -> bats, porpoises, some birds • magnetic sense -> some birds Cognition • understanding • thought • planning and imagining • problem-solving • attention • learning and memory Communication • speech • language • gesture • facial expression • body language, posture • gait • Action – manipulating the environment – actively exploring – navigation • Emotion – fear – happiness – sadness – hmmm……. . How is the mind/brain studied? • Interdisciplinary approach • Which disciplines are useful? Psychology • study of mind and behavior • questions – What can we know about the world? – How do we learn and organize behavior? • methods – scientific - empirical, hypothesis testing • Cause effect : x -> y – non-scientific - clinical, analytic, introspective
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3 Neuroscience • neural basis of: – perception – cognition – action • structure and function of the nervous system – neuroanatomy – neurophysiology – neuropsychology • Neuroanatomy – structure - neurons and neural tracts • staining/labeling dyes, tracer dyes, and histology • brain imaging - e.g.,MRI • Neurophysiology – functions - neurons • recording from single neurons (with stimulation) • Neuropsychology – global functions of brain areas • lesions – strokes – controlled in animals • electrical stimulation of brain areas – pain control • neuroimaging - functional brain imaging – watch the brain while performing a task… – see what parts are active…. .e.g., when you read? Computer Science, Engineering, Robotics
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1_cognitivescience - What is Cognitive Science? Definition...

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