5_speechandlanguage - Speech and Language purpose ? a form...

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1 Speech and Language • purpose ? • a form of communication • share with animals, vocalizations The Problems • speech production • language comprehension • language acquisition • brain and language - neurolinguistics Language Comprehension • speech perception • lexical access • sentence processing • discourse processing Disciplines • Psychoacoustics – Auditory processing • Speech Perception – perception of speech signals – factors that affect speech processing • Speech Production/Pathology • Linguistics - study of language structure – universals -what do ALL/NO languages have? – structure of language - human cognition • Psycholinguistics – psychological and neuropsychological mechanisms that allow us to produce and comprehend language • Developmental Psycholinguistics – What aspects of language learned first? – Which are easy/difficult? – Necessary components of the learning environment? – Language acquisition - mind and brain? Human Biological Suitability for Language • vocal tract - rapid changes • specialized hemispheric processing • universal child development acquisition – maturational brain changes – no formal instruction
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2 Universals • all humans use language • complexity – all languages comparably complex • arbitrary mapping from sounds to meaning – dog, perro, hund, chien • discrete specialized signs • infinite meanings from finite sign/symbol • shared structure of all languages Shared Structure • phonological - sounds of the language • morphological - conjunctions into words • syntactic - grammar • semantic - meaning • pragmatic - practical aspects of meaning Speech-Phonology • Spectrograph x axis time y axis frequency – amplitude = intensity Vocal apparatus • like a wind and string instrument combined • parts – air passage ways – air blocker structures • tongue, teeth, lips, nose – vocal cords - vibratory mechanism
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3 Phoneme (def) - smallest segment of speech that if changed would change the meaning of the word. • kinds – vowels – consonants Vowels • vocal tract open • about 13 in English (between 3-46) • fundamental frequency - pitch of the voice – resonance of the vocal tract Vowels • Give rise to formants in speech spectograph time ----> frequency Consonants • vocal tract closed • 24 in English (Between 6-95) • features of consonants – voicing – place of articulation – manner of articulation Voicing • vocal cords – vibrate -> voiced • e.g., z – do not vibrate -> unvoiced • e.g., s, f • given voicing -> voice onset time – constriction of vocal tract - time - vibration da, ta, pa
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4 Place of Articulation • Where the obstruction occurs d,t - alveolar m,w - labial f - labiodental s,z - dental k - celar Manner of articulation • stop consonants – complete closure • e.g., ba, ma • fricatives – partial closure - narrowing of the vocal tract • e.g., s, f, z
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2008 for the course CGS 2301 taught by Professor O'toole during the Fall '07 term at University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.

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5_speechandlanguage - Speech and Language purpose ? a form...

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