Lecture_Six - Lecture Six January 31, 2008 Lecture 6:...

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Lecture Six January 31, 2008 Lecture 6: HANNIBAL AND THE AFTERMATH Roman RELIGION - OLD AND NEW I. The Second Punic War (218-201 B.C.) Hannibal o Father of…. o Takes his army to Spain and then went to France, defeated armies there. Saguntum o Up to Eble river was Carthaginian territory, more interested about preserving trade. o At 218, the Saguntum people wanted to make an alliance with Rome, against the treaty well in Carthaginian territory, not first time treaty broken o Rearranged the map to move Saguntum up above the river. o Need to set up protected trade routes, gave military the budge to do this Alps and elephants o Hit the Alps, he marched into the Alps with undaunted courage. Came down the other side and had a psychological momentum over Rome. o Element of surprise over Rome. o Speculation of what routes he took. o Wipes out any roman army when they come down. Fabius o Mentor of Cato, very deliberate, conservative. o Going to wear Hannibal out, shadow his army but don’t offer a direct opportunity for battle. Cannae: Plebeian official who said let’s go after Hannibal. 216 BC- The biggest defeat the Romans ever suffered. Hannibal let the Romans fight them back and then enveloped and defeated them. Hannibal decided not to march against Rome, he could’ve won the city, but he didn’t do it. Stays in Italy for the next 14 years. o Typical Roman soldiers were farmers, agricultural society; while Hannibal is around they can’t go back to business. o Hannibal’s military budget was cut because the Carthaginians thought he did enough. Didn’t have enough resources to deliver the final punch. o Didn’t oppress their cities, slowly gave them rights, climbing up the ladder. Cities didn’t want to join Hannibal, wanted to stay with Rome to advance later. Scipio and Zama (202 B.C.) o Scipio transferred the war to Africa. Carthaginians told Hannibal to come back to assist them. o Later becomes one of the great opponents of Cato, he gets a lot of glory believes in higher influence, causes tension between Cato and him. o The Battle of Zama 202BC Use three lines, disorient the elephants and they charge back against the Carthaginians. Roman cavalry charges, infantry advance. The cavalry came back and attacked from the posterior.
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o Drew up treaties, saying Carthage couldn’t form armies. Hannibal escapes. Romans came after him until he committed suicide. II. Long-term consequences: new trends vs. old traditions, e.g. in religion
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Lecture_Six - Lecture Six January 31, 2008 Lecture 6:...

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