Memory 1 (student)

Memory 1 (student) - Proposed Stages of Memory Encoding...

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Proposed Stages of Memory Encoding Storage Retrieval Forgetting From an evolutionary perspective, what might be some of the functions of memory? Survival. I. Multistore (or Modal) Model (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968) Different properties of each mode/store: Capacity, Duration, Code Environmental input>>sensory registers: visual, auditory, haptic.>>short term store: temporary working memory: control processes: rehearsal, coding, decision, retreival strategies>[\/response output]>long-term store: permanent memory store.
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A. Sensory Memory 1. Capacity : very limited Only as much as you could take in in one glance. It stays in iconic memory 2. Duration : Interstimulus internal (ISI) Iconic Memory : 1/3 second If the array of dots were to be shown within 1/3 of a second (300 msec) then most of the time people would record the letters correctly. Icon (Neisser, 1967) Sperling Four is the average number of letters they can remember. When the tone is sounded before the icons disappear, the accuracy goes way up. When the tone is sounded just after, the accuracy barely goes down. --icon masked by another incoming stimulus Throws up with letters on a screen and people can get the first four letters but have problems getting anything past the first line. Echoic Memory: 2-3 seconds (what’d you say? . .. oh wait never mind, I got it.) Moray (1965) and Darwin, Turvey, & Crowder (1972) used stereoscopic stimuli (3-4 perceived channels) When sounds come from both left and right, perceived as coming from the middle. R: M 5 3 L: 2 T F Stereo: X 4 S If you use the same cue as stimuli, the cue obliterates the stimuli. --Response delays of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, … seconds --Visual cue to partially report one of the channels --Maximum recall was 5 items; echoic memory lasted 2-4 seconds --Significant advantage of 3 rd item presented to an ear (out of 3)
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The last item was best reported 3. Code : “Modality-specific”—in same mode/form in which information was presented e.g., " suffix effect "-where final items to be remembered are lost--occurs in echoic memory, when items & retrieval cue presented auditorily Retrieval cue may serve as a mask to obliterate final items of list; does not occur with tone or beep
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2008 for the course CC 302 taught by Professor Galinsky during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas.

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Memory 1 (student) - Proposed Stages of Memory Encoding...

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