Memory 1 - MEMORY Proposed Stages of Memory Encoding,...

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MEMORY Proposed Stages of Memory Encoding, Storage, Retrieval, Forgetting From an evolutionary perspective, what might be some of the functions of memory? I. Multistore (or Modal) Model (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968) Different properties of each mode/store: Capacity, Duration, Code A. Sensory Memory 1. Capacity : very limited 2. Duration : Iconic Memory : 1/3 second Icon (Neisser, 1967) Sperling Report Technique --icon masked by another incoming stimulus Echoic Memory : 2-3 seconds Moray (1965) and Darwin, Turvey, & Crowder (1972) used stereoscopic stimuli (3-4 perceived channels)
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MEMORY R: M 5 3 L: 2 T F Stereo: X 4 S --Response delays of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, … seconds --Visual cue to partially report one of the channels --Maximum recall was 5 items; echoic memory lasted 2-4 seconds --Significant advantage of 3 rd item presented to an ear (out of 3) 3. Code : “Modality-specific”—in same mode/form in which information was presented e.g., " suffix effect "-where final items to be remembered are lost--occurs in echoic memory, Retrieval cue may serve as a mask to obliterate final items of list; does not occur with tone or beep B. Short-Term Memory 1. Capacity Miller’s “Magical Number 7” 7+ 2 items But, type of stimuli influences STM Chunking De Groot (1965) Size of chunks matters (Simon) 2. Duration Brown-Peterson task: 20 seconds;
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MEMORY Performance at 7% at 18-seconds Decay vs. Interference? --Reitman (1971)
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Memory 1 - MEMORY Proposed Stages of Memory Encoding,...

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