Memory 2 Spr08 - LTM Encoding Retrieval I Levels of...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
LTM: I. Levels of Processing Theory (Craik & Lockhart, 1972; Craik & Tulving, 1975) A. Claims 1. There are levels of analysis within encoding, which vary from “shallow” to “deep.” 2. “Deep,” or semantic processing leads to better memory. 3. Repetition of material AND intention to learn are insufficient to encourage LTM; it is the quality of the processing that matters: a. Maintenance rehearsal : repetition of information as proposed by Shiffrin & Atkinson’s REHEARSAL, which does NOT lead to long-term retention b. Elaborative rehearsal : Semantic processing of information, which leads to long-term retention 4. Information decays based on the quality of its encoding (rather than on which “structure” of memory in which it is being stored) Distinction between STM and LTM is not as clearcut as the Multistore (or Modal) Model claims. B. Stages of Encoding 1. Structural Processing : physical features of a stimulus: a. Visual stimuli : in capital or small case letters? Curved or angular? b. Auditory stimuli : male or female voice? Loud or soft? Music or a spoken stimulus? 2. Phonemic or Orthographic Processing : a. Visual stimuli (if words): Does the word contain a particular letter? [”Orthographic” refers to writing] b. Auditory stimuli : Does the word contain a particular sound, such as a /p/? Does the word rhyme with some other word? 3. Syntactic Processing : includes the grammatical class of a word--is it a Noun? Verb? Adjective? Article? 4. Semantic Processing : coding based on the meaning of a stimulus--Does the word depict a kind of vehicle? Is it associated with Vacations? C. Hyde & Jenkins’s (1969; 1973) Experiments 1. 1973: Subjects learned 24 words, which were composed of 12 pairs of primary associates (e.g., salt-pepper ; but associated words did not follow each other in the list).
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
2. 5 Orienting Tasks : (designed to manipulate the type of encoding): Non-semantic orienting tasks : a. E-G checking (Orthographic) : did each word contain either an E or a G? b. Syntactic sentence Frame : Before each word a basic sentence frame appeared, and Ss had to judge whether the word fit into that frame. The two syntactic frames used were: 1- “It is ____________” (Verbs, Adj) 2-“It is a __________ “ (Nouns) c. Part of Speech And 2 Semantic orienting tasks : d. Frequency of usage : estimate how often each word was used in speech e. Pleasantness/Unpleasantness Ratings : on 1-5 scale, how un/pleasant is the concept depicted by the word? 3.
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 04/13/2008 for the course CC 302 taught by Professor Galinsky during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas.

Page1 / 7

Memory 2 Spr08 - LTM Encoding Retrieval I Levels of...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online