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Memory 4 Spr08 (studt)

Memory 4 Spr08 (studt) - Imagery Mnemonics I Imagery...

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Imagery & Mnemonics I. Imagery Techniques A. Interactive Imagery 1. Bower (1970) Paired-Associates Learning under 3 conditions: Rote Rehearsal Non-interactive Imagery Interactive Imagery Bower (1970) Results: Paired Associates Learning 2. Wollen, Weber, & Lowry (1972) Subjects given paired associates and asked to image them: Interacting vs. Side-by-Side (non-interacting) Bizarre vs. Common Interacting Images led to better memory; bizarreness did NOT. 3. McDaniel & Einstein (1986) 10 sentences of triplets: BIZARRE: The dog rode the bicycle down the street . COMMON: The dog chased the bicycle down the street . Bizarre vs. Common studied as a Between-Subjects Variable Within-Subjects Variable McDaniel & Einstein (1986), Exp. 1 Triplet sentences under Incidental learning Results : Both bizarre sentences themselves, and words in bizarre sentences
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best remembered only in ________________ condition McDaniel & Einstein (1986), Exp. 4 : No significant differences in R____________ rates as a function of Imagery Type. _____________ list advantage suggests that, when bizarre imagery improves memory, it is due to __________________ processes. 4. Buggie (1974 dissertation) 28 word pairs learned incidentally, under instructions to “rate the vividness of the image” Two conditions: Static, spatially separated (side-by-side images), vs. Interacting images: Apple jammed into a window Parakeet crushing a goblet Number of relations varied: Interacting, 1 relation x 28 word pairs Interacting, 4 relations x 7 word pairs Interacting, 28 relations x 1 word pair --Memory for paired associates with Incidental Learning, as a function of Image type & Number of Interactions: _____ relation/s group led to best memory. WHY?? Distinctiveness Less subject to interference from other word pair relations -- suggests __________ advantage for imagery pairs B. Method of Loci
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First used by ancient Greeks to remember parts of their speech in sequence Associate to-be-learned information with familiar locations Ross & Lawrence (1968) found Ss could recall 38/40 words after one presentation when using this technique C. Keyword Method link a new word to [a] familiar word/s that is acoustically similar; then link the meaning of the new word to the keyword through imagery. E.g., to learn the Spanish carta (meaning “letter”), use the English keyword cart and link the meaning of the to-be-learned word to the keyword in imagery (picture a letter in a cart) good for learning a foreign language or technical terminology (e.g, anatomy) 1. Wang, Thomas, & Oulette (1992), Exp 1 : Recall of 22 French nouns processed under Incidental Learning --Results: Keyword technique best when __________________ 2. Keyword Research: Conclusions Keyword advantage disappears after a delay if items not tested first directly after learning Best if picture provided along with keyword (Thomas & Wang, 1996) Keyword method best when keywords share both a phonological AND semantic relationship with target word E.g., Spanish “pestana” (eyelash) & keyword “paste-on Only works for concrete words (less useful for abstract words)
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