MEMORY ALL - MEMORY 1 Proposed Stages of Memory Encoding,...

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MEMORY 1 Proposed Stages of Memory Encoding, Storage, Retrieval, Forgetting From an evolutionary perspective, what might be some of the functions  of memory? I.  Multistore (or Modal) Model Different properties of each mode/store: Capacity, Duration, Code A.  Sensory Memory 1.  Capacity :  very limited 2.  Duration : Iconic Memory :  1/3 second Icon  (Neisser, 1967) Report Technique --icon masked by another incoming stimulus Echoic Memory :  2-3 seconds channels) R:   M 5 3
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L: 2 T F Stereo: X 4 S --Response delays of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, … seconds --Visual cue to partially report one of the  channels --Maximum recall was 5 items; echoic  memory lasted 2-4 seconds --Significant advantage of 3 rd  item presented to an ear (out of 3) 3.  Code :  “Modality-specific”—in same  mode/form in which information was  presented e.g., " suffix effect "-where final items to be remembered are  lost--occurs in echoic memory, Retrieval cue may serve as a mask to obliterate final items of  list; does not occur with tone or beep B.  Short-Term Memory 1.  Capacity Miller’s “Magical Number 7” 7+ items But, type of stimuli influences STM Chunking  De Groot (1965) Size of chunks matters (Simon) 2.  Duration Brown-Peterson task:  20 seconds; Performance at 7% at 18-seconds Decay vs. Interference? --Reitman (1971) --Waugh & Norman (1965) Proactive  Interference
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Reitman  ( 1971) Three, 4-letter nouns 15-second retention interval Distractor tasks : -listen to tone within white noise:   92% retention -Detect “toh” in the midst of “doh:” 77%  (lower if Ss had to say “toh” out loud when detected) 5 1 9 6 / 3 5 1 4 / 2 8 6 2 / 7 3 9 4     5 1    9 6 If probe is  4 , Number of Intervening Items:  7 Time interval: 2 seconds (fast rate) 8 seconds  (slow rate) -- Proactive vs. Retroactive Interference? 3.  Code --thought to be Auditory or Acoustic Conrad (1964) :  Visually presented  consonants;  T   M   J   B    K  Z  L --most errors sounded like  the target   (e.g., “G” for “B”) rather than looked  like the target  (e.g., “F”)
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Baddeley lists wait bus gate rain fate zoo date disk grate soap eight food BUT, STM can also entail a  visual code (Posner) and/OR a  semantic code (Solso; Wickens) Posner et al.   (1969): Match AA,  Aa,  aA, or aa or AB…. --RT fastest for Visual-Name
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2008 for the course CC 302 taught by Professor Galinsky during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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MEMORY ALL - MEMORY 1 Proposed Stages of Memory Encoding,...

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