Memory one RJB - 1/24/2005 1:48:00 PM Proposed Stages of...

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24/01/2005 14:48:00 Proposed Stages of Memory ____________ Storage Retrieval Forgetting From an evolutionary perspective, what might be some of the functions of memory? I. Multistore (or Modal) Model (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968) Different properties of each mode/store:
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____________, Duration, ____________ A. Sensory Memory 1. Capacity : very limited 2. Duration : Iconic Memory : 1/3 second Icon (Neisser, 1967) Sperling (1960) & ____________ ___________Technique --icon masked by another incoming stimulus
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______________ Memory : 2-3 seconds Moray (1965) and Darwin, Turvey, & Crowder (1972) used stereoscopic stimuli (3-4 perceived channels) R: M 5 3 L: 2 T F Stereo: X 4 S --Response delays of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, … seconds --Visual cue to partially report one of the channels --Maximum recall was 5 items; echoic memory lasted 2-4 seconds --Significant advantage of 3 rd item presented to an ear (out of 3) 3. Code : “Modality-specific”—in same mode/form in which information
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was presented e.g., " suffix effect "-where final items to be remembered are lost--occurs in echoic memory, when items & retrieval cue presented auditorily Retrieval cue may serve as a mask to obliterate final items of list; does not occur with tone or beep B. Short-Term Memory 1. Capacity Miller’s “Magic Number 7” 7+ 2 items But, type of stimuli influences STM Chunking : group alike things together to decrease the number of items. De Groot (1965)
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Size of chunks matters (Simon) Not 100% to make chucks as big as you can, the better. Simon tested himself to see how big he could make chucks. -7 1-syllable words remembers all -7 2-syllable words remembers all -7 3-syllable words remembers 6 -7 2 word phrases remembers 4 -7 8 word sentences remembers 3 -up to a point, memory can be taken to a certain point w/o hurting short term memory Chess: masters vs novices Masters = novices when pieces are put randomly, not due to their better memory, due to their reasoning of the pieces. 2.
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2008 for the course CC 302 taught by Professor Galinsky during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas.

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Memory one RJB - 1/24/2005 1:48:00 PM Proposed Stages of...

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