Memory_2_(student)_Spr08 rjb

Memory_2_(student)_Spr08 rjb - 2/8/2008 8:59:00 AM LTM:...

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08/02/2008 09:59:00 LTM: I. Levels of Processing Theory (Craik & Lockhart, 1972; Tulving, 1975) A. Claims 1. There are levels of analysis within encoding, which vary from “shallow” to “deep.” 2. “Deep,” or semantic processing leads to better memory. 3. Repetition of material AND intention to learn are insufficient to encourage LTM; it is the quality of the processing that matters: a. Maintenance rehearsal : repetition of information as proposed by Shiffrin & Atkinson’s REHEARSAL, which does NOT lead to long-term retention phone number from phone book to phone okay, but won’t lead to long term retention b. Elaborative_rehearsal : Semantic processing of information, which leads to long-term retention linking letters, numbers of license plate to meaningful things
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4. Information decays based on the quality of its encoding (rather than on which “structure” of memory in which it is being stored) Distinction between STM and LTM is not as clearcut as the Multistore (or Modal) Model claims. B. Stages of Encoding 1. Structural Processing : physical features of a stimulus: a. Visual stimuli : in capital or small case letters? Curved or angular? Auditory stimuli : male or female voice? Loud or soft? Music or a spoken stimulus? Vis structural processing orthographic phonolog./phonemic syntactic syntactic(grammatical class) semantic Aud structural processing phonolog./phonemic orthographic syntactic(grammatical class) semantic 2. Phonemic or Orthographic Processing : a. Visual stimuli (if words): Does the word contain a particular letter? [”Orthographic” refers to ___________] b. Auditory stimuli : Does the word contain a particular sound, such as a /p/? Does the word rhyme with some other word?
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Syntactic Processing : includes the grammatical class of a word—is it a Noun? Verb? Adjective? Article? 4. Semantic Processing : coding based on the meaning of a stimulus- -Does the word depict a kind of vehicle? Is it associated with Vacations? C. Hyde & Jenkins’s (1969; 1973) Experiments 1. 1973: Subjects learned 24 words, which were composed of 12 pairs of primary associates (e.g., salt-pepper ; but associated words did not follow each other in the list). 2. 5 Orienting Tasks : (designed to manipulate the type of encoding): Non-semantic orienting tasks : a. E-G checking (Orthographic) : did each word contain either an E or a G? b.
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Memory_2_(student)_Spr08 rjb - 2/8/2008 8:59:00 AM LTM:...

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