Memory_3_(student)_Spr08[1]

Memory_3_(student)_Spr08[1] - Retrieval Is_forgetting...

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Retrieval Is “_forgetting_” really just a retrieval problem? I. Explicit Retrieval A. Recall 1. Free Recall : --spontaneous retrieval --subjective__ organization (Bousfield; 1953) 2. Cued Recall --provide some retrieval cue (e.g., first letter, category hints; first word of paired associates) B. Recognition 1. Absolute_ judgment -“Was this item in the original stimulus list?” 2. Forced__ choice recognition Multiple choice. Right known as targets, wrong known as foils. Shepard (1967) 540 words : ½ high frequency ( child, office ) ½ very low freq. ( ferule, wattled ) Recognition test : Hi F Target – Hi F Foil 82.1% Hi F Target – Low F Foil 86.7% Low F Target – Hi F Foil 93%
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Low F Target – Low F Foil 92% Word Frequency Effect High frequency are better recalled, low frequency less. 612 sentences : 89% recognition 612 color pictures : 2 hours: 99.7% 3 days: 92% 7 days: 87% 120 days: 57.7% Picture Superiority Effect 3. Continuous running recognition task --Implicit Associative Response Frost, elm, ice, birch, ice … cedar, warm, frost, temperature … oak, cold Go thru the list and determine whether or not that word has been said in the previous listing… frost N, elm N, ice N, birch N, ice Y, cedar N, warm N, frost Y, temperature N, oak N, cold (*) * the user will think that cold was in the list because it is so closely related to ice and frost. They begin to believe it was in the list therefore giving a false positive. II. Implicit Retrieval A. Relearning --Ebbinghaus: calculate “savings:” Number of trials to learn information originally, divided by number of trials to relearn (E.g., 22/11 = 50% savings)
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First list: can recall everything, 6 minutes to memorize all nonsense syllables. 30 days later, he can’t remember anything, but it only to him 3 minutes to relearn it. They found that you might not be able to explicitly retrieve that information, it’s not hard to learn the task again. --Burtt (1941) & Oedipus Tyrranus: Each 20-line passage read 90 consecutive days to his son (beginning at 15 mos. to 33 mos.) Based on a study he did with his son At 15 months, he read 20 lines in Greek for 90 days. Son later tested on trials to recite OLD vs. NEW 20-line Passages At 8 ½ the father retests him with Old vs. New. It takes him 27% fewer trials to learn the old passage. So clearly the information he was exposed to as a toddler STUCK. Savings at age : 8.5 years: 27% fewer trials 14: 14% 18: 0% By the time he’s 18, the information has disappeared. B. Fragment (or Word Stem) Completion Amnesia patients --“CANOE” appears on list; subject does not recall “canoe” --when then asked to complete the fragment CAN_____ with the first word that comes to mind, gives “CANOE” (& other words on list) more often than chance Can’t spontaneously retrieve information, but in subtle ways they can.
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C. “Guilty Knowledge” Test Lie detector test \/ doesn’t work for psychopaths, or tense people --show different galvanic skin response response (GSR) to familiar stimuli, even if claimed that person doesn’t remember the face/information When used in memory things, show face/people and tell them to try and recall the pictures, they really can’t. When hooked up to the
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