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Attention II (student) Spr08

Attention II (student) Spr08 - ATTENTION II I Techniques...

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ATTENTION II I. Techniques for Studying Selective or Divided Attention     a. Dichotic listening tasks     : each of 2 messages piped to separate ears. 1. Subject can either pay attention to 1 message: a. Selective Attention task     : pay attention to one message, & ignore other  ( Un/Attended messages 2. Or pay attention to 2 messages: a. Divided Attention task     : monitor two messages simultaneously b. --issue of cell phones while driving b. Shadowing     : in a dichotic listening task, subject is asked to repeat aloud one (or both)  message/s c. Visual Tasks     : Can also use Selective or Divided Visual Attention tasks (or combination of  the two): 1. Neisser & Becklen (1975) found divided attention led to 8x the error rate as  selective attention in a visual task. d. Significance?     1. The best predictor of Israeli air force trainees’ performance in flight school was  performance on a  selective listening  task (Gopher & Kahnemann, 1971). a. Best predictor 2. Best predictor of commercial drivers’ accident records was their performance on a  selective listening  task (better even than a  visual skills task ; Mihal & Barett,  1976).  II. Selective Attention: Models & Research     a. Broadbent’s Filter Model     1. Claims     : a. Limited capacity system: there is a single sensory channel through which  information must pass b. Bottleneck  occurs after sensory/physical processing of the stimulus.  1. Can’t understand unless you switch your attention. 2. Only intended message will get through to working memory 3. [Sensory processes: intensity, pitch, etc] >> [Pattern Recognition] >>  [Working Memory] 4. Can notice pitch difference right away (i.e. Male/Female) c. Early selection:  Bottleneck  is prior to perceptual analysis or pattern recognition d. An unattended message can be recognized only if  1. Attention is switched before it fades from sensory store 2. Switching to different information takes seconds, so researchers will  know when you didn’t pay attention to the right information. e. Switching attention itself requires resources 1. Trying to block takes capacity so only so much is left for information  you’re paying attention to. 2. You can only pay attention to either/or, NOT both.
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2. Evidence     a. Cherry (1953) asked subjects to shadow one message in a selective listening  task. 1. Shadowing was in a  monotone , could not report what they had heard in  the unattended message (even  backward  speech, or change to a  different language).
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