Cell Biology Study Guide Test 1

Cell Biology Study Guide Test 1 - Cell Biology Study Guide...

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Cell Biology Study Guide Test 1 1. Introduction to the cells a.) Understand the tenets of Cell theory: (1) Cell organisms consist of 1+ cells (1839: Schleiden and Schwann) (2) Cell is the basic unit structure of all organisms (1839: Schleiden and Schwann) (3) All cells arise from preexisting cells (1855: Virchow) b.) Understand the evidence for the evolutionary history of cells: Mitochondrial and chloroplast of DNA are remarkably similar to bacterial DNA; ATP generating mechanisms and many proteins are similar across phyla; We can express human proteins in bacterial, insect, yeast, or plant cells (which is possible since all cell’s missions are essentially the same); we can create animal models to study diseases processes or test drugs on other animals before using them on human beings c.) Understand the relationship between chloroplast, mitochondria, and eukaryotic evolution of cells (endosymbiotic hypothesis) d.) Understand the significance of model organisms from evolutionary and clinical perspectives e.) What does pibaldism teach you? Pibaldism illustrates the reason model organisms are used because their genes are so closely related to humans, but at a more affordable cost. f.) Understand size relationship between prokaryotes and eukaryotes g.) Know the basic functions of cellular organelles : (1 ) Plasma membrane : gatekeeper and communicator (2) nucleus: contains DNA, nucleolus is where ribosomes are synthesized (3) cytoplasm : site of many chemical reactions; consists of cytosol & cytoskeleton (4 ) mitochondria: made of folds ( cristae ) that enclose a space called the matrix (which DNA & ribosomes); the cristae are highly pleomorphic and connect to the inner membrane via tubular connection; divide on their own; site of metabolism and ATP productions; defects can lead to disease; descended from a bacteria engulfed by a ancestral eukaryotic cell 1.2 bya and enveloped an endosymbiotic relationship (5) Chloroplasts: unique to plants and algae; consists of chlorophyll containing thylakoid membranes, thylakoid space, and stroma (that contain DNA); uses photosynthesis; evolved from endocytosis of photosynthetic bacteria by early eukaryotic cells (like mitochondria) (6) Endoplasmic Reticulum : involved in protein synthesis, lipid synthesis, and detoxification (7 ) Golgi Apparatus : process materials for transport; synthesizes the cell wall in plants
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(8) Lysosomes : single-membrane enclosed vesicles with 50 different digestive enzymes; involved in digesting phagocytosed bacteria, recycling, and excretion (9) Peroxisomes (microbodies ): involved in detoxification and removal of highly reactive chemicals; contains at least 50 different enzymes; in plants they convert fat into carbs (specialized peroxisomes called glyoxysomes play a key role in this) (10) Transport vesicles: carry protein to different destinations in the cell (11) Cytoskeleton : actin, intermediate filament, and microtubules provide framework and mobility to cells; important for intracellular transport and cell division (12)
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