Exam 3 - Insect Plant Interactions Phytophagous insects that eat plants.phyto-plant-phagous-eating Macerate Rip off chew up and make a pulpy mess

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Insect – Plant Interactions Phytophagous – insects that eat plants…phyto-plant—phagous-eating Macerate – Rip off, chew up, and make a pulpy mess from plant material A. Insects feed on plants where? 1) Insect inside plant 2) Insect outside of plant a. Borers go inside plant tissue b. Miners eat out the idle of the leaves c. cause plant deformations (e.g. Galls) d. Can suck plant juices e. Can chew plant tissues 3) Insects and their host plants a. Monophagus an insect that eats just one host species…mono-one—phagous-eating b. Oligophagous have a few host plants they will eat c. Polyphagus eat many plant species 4) How do they find host plants? b. Mom c. Colony B. Types of insect feeding 1) Chewing – heads are heavily muscular; consume leaf tissue (most chewers) a. Margin feeders – feed on the edges b. Skeletonizers – feed on the upper OR lower layers of the leaf c. Miners – eat between the upper and lower layers of the leaf (?asdyrksasdfkj?) 2) All leaf diners are in 1 of 4 orders a. Lepidoptera b. Diptera c. Hymenoptera d. Coleoptera 3) Leaf rollers, tyers, folders 4) Boring insects – very powerful mandibles a. Legless b. Mouthparts point forward (prognathus) c. Pale and white d. Very powerful mandibles e. Micro organisms in gut to break down cellulose from plant to make energy f. Some make characteristic galleries i. Patterns beneath bark adults eat wood ii. Feed on fungus in galleries immatures g. Some bore through fruits h. Some bore through seeds i. get H 2 O by making it 1) ?Metabolic? water 2) Use hydrogen + oxygen
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C. Challenges to feeding 1) Penetration a. see handout A 2) Leakage a. Occurs when it penetrates the cell and doesn’t do anything b. Refer to drawing in notes c. Salivary Gland – Contains enzyme (Runny saliva) i. Viscous saliva 1) Plugs hole (chewing gum) 2) Pushed through salivary channel first 3) When w/air almost immediately turns solid 3) Digestion a. Material goes through food channel b. Two reasons why they poop a lot i. Excess H 2 O ii. Low concentration of protein, high carbs iii. Don’t need it, so ingest and let out 4) Ingestion a. Honeydew i. watery, sugary, poop (solution) b. Allows food to go to food channel D. Galls 1) Plant makes more tissue to wall at point of invasion 2) Emits chemicals that make plants create galls so it can feed on it 3) Abnormal growths: Buds, leaves, stems, roots 4) Formed by a. Fungi b. Bacteria c. Nematodes d. Mites e. Insects trick plant into forming galls i. Following orders 1) Diptera (midges) 2) Hymenoptera (some wasps) 3) Coleoptera, Homoptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera a. Only a few of these species 5) Types a. Indeterminate – slightest swelling of plant tissue with no distortions or coloration i. hard to see use unless know plant species b. Determinate – obvious distortions in plant tissue and different color/textures
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E. How does an insect find an acceptable host plant? (Host finding sequences) 1) Search for a suitable habitat – vision
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2008 for the course ENOMOLOGY 1000 taught by Professor Notsure during the Spring '07 term at Wyoming.

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Exam 3 - Insect Plant Interactions Phytophagous insects that eat plants.phyto-plant-phagous-eating Macerate Rip off chew up and make a pulpy mess

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