EU - INR 11-7-07 The European Union Flag: 12 stars for when...

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INR 11-7-07 The European Union Flag: 12 stars for when they had 12 member states Currency: Euro Two sides: - Common EU symbol - National Side The situation in the late 1940’s Iron Curtain Big political question post WWII: What to do with Germany? Europe divided Economic and political instability Reconstruction Marshall Plan Fear of the Soviet Union Fear of Germany Churchill called for a “United States of Europe” Would include continental Europe UK would be excluded Two events pushed Europe towards organization 1) Coup in Czechoslovakia – 1948 2) Berlin blockade- 1948 Goals of European Integration Rebuild their economies Prevent Germany from starting another war Deter the Soviet Union from attacking Two Integration Movements 1) European Defense Community (EDC) Politically oriented Proposed in 1950 by the French All-European army with a unified command; Replaces national armies Would fulfill two objectives: a) Prevent Soviet aggression b) Allow the rearming of Germany without giving control over weapons *The EDC never came into being, was only ever proposed
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Economically oriented Proposed by the French in 1950 A common market fro the coal and steel industries Treaty signed in 1951 Members: France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg *Both of these organizations fit the definition of a supranational entity “The capacity to make decisions binding on the national members without being subject to their individual approval” Two Approaches to Integration 1) Federalism Any attempt to integrate sovereign states must go directly to the heart of the matter Give incipient federal government substantial political power from the beginning Slogan: the worst way to cross a chasm is in little steps (one big step to alter national authority and sovereignty is better) 2) Neofunctionalism Small steps toward integration Begin with a central organization with authority only over technical/ economic tasks (stay away from social and political issues) Process of “spillover” slowly expands the organization’s authority Gradual erosion of national authority and sovereignty *Neofunctionalism was the successful strategy in regards to European integration Evolution of the EU: Widening Original 6 members: France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg 1973: Denmark, Ireland, and UK joined (Northern Tier Expansion) 1981: Greece 1986: Spain, Portugal *These 12 countries represent the 12 stars on the EU flag After the Cold War things change 1995: Austria, Sweden, Finland Why didn’t they enter earlier, even though they were wealthy
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EU - INR 11-7-07 The European Union Flag: 12 stars for when...

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