INR2002 notes

INR2002 notes - INR2002 Test: Monday - NOV 5 10/08 The...

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INR2002 Test: Monday - NOV 5 10/08 The Friday Article – Huntington “The clash of civilizations?” (1993) -The west vs. the rest -19 th th century wars -19 th : fought based on power -20 th : WWI – based on power WWII – ideology, fascism vs. communism Cold War – communism vs. liberal democracy “Western civil war” Huntington hypothesis – the dominating source of conflict in the world will be cultural – not ideological or economic -“A civilization is the highest cultural grouping of people” -“The broadest level of cultural identity” -Defined by objective things -Language, history, religion, customs, institutions -Defined by subjective elements -Self-identification of people -Lines between civilizations are rarely sharp, but they are meaningful -Civilizations are dynamic; rise and fall; divide and merge Major Civilizations -Western -Confucian -Japanese -Islamic -Hindu -Slavic-orthodox -Latin American -African ** All conflicts are going to occur across ^^^ these civilizations Why will civilizations clash? -Differences among civilizations represent the most fundamental differences between people; more fundamental than differences among political ideology -World is becoming a similar place; more interactions among civilizations leads to more hostility -Growth of fundamental religions -A “return to the roots” phenomenon is occurring among non-western civilizations -Cultural differences are less easily compromised and resolved than political and economic ones -Economic regionalism is increasing
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What should West do? -Promote greater cooperation and unity within own civilization -Co-opt closely related civilizations such as -Latin American -Japanese -Slavic-ortho (Russian) -Limit expansion of military strengths of Islamic and Confucian states -Maintaining military superiority in East and Southwester Asia -Exploit differences and conflicts among Confucian and Islamic states -Support groups in other civilizations that are sympathizes to your views -Strengthening international institutions that reflect and legitimate western interests and values 10/10 What are the causes of war? >War is becoming less frequent, decreasing in size 5 types of war 1) Hegemonic war – the type of war that is impossible because it would destroy civilization = world war 2) Total war – when one country invades another to conquer, occupy 3) Limited war – US going to drive out Iraq from Kuwait 4) Civil war – internal war/conflict 5) Guerilla war – also usually internal Conflict of interest or conflict of ideas? -Interest: fighting over “goods” -Land – territorial disputes -Secession -Border disputes (land, water) -Territorial waters -Sovereignty @ 3 miles -UNCLOS – UN Commission of Land and Sea -Shipping – 12 miles -EEZ – Exclusive Economic Zones – 200 miles Conflict of Ideas -Nationalism: early 20 th century -Ethnic -Religion -Ideological The Causes of Armed Conflict: Rival Explanations -Individual level -Human nature and aggression
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INR2002 notes - INR2002 Test: Monday - NOV 5 10/08 The...

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