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chapter-07 - CHEM 1331 REVIEW CHAPTER 7 LIGHT Wavelength c...

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CHEM 1331 REVIEW CHAPTER 7 LIGHT Wavelength ( λ ) Frequency ( ν ) Speed (c) = 3 x 10 8 m/s c = λν Spectrum in order or INCREASING FREQUENCY (DECREASING WAVELENGTH) Radio < micro < infra red < visible < ultraviolet < x-ray < gamma ray In visible: red < orange < yellow < green < blue < violet Planck: Light energy comes in packets (PHOTONS): E = h ν J Einstein: Photoelectric effect – photons can be thought of as particles ELECTRONS IN ATOMS Bohr Model Energy levels quantized Electrons in orbits with specific quantum numbers related to energy Spectra due to electrons moving up in energy (absorption) or down in energy (emission) E [1/n 1 2 – 1/n 2 2 ] when n 1 and n 2 are energy level quantum numbers (can also get ν or 1/ λ proportional using correct constants, ) de Broglie Everything has a wavelength: λ = h/mv (not important for us, important for electrons) Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle – can’t know position and speed (momentum, energy) of electron Orbital Volume of space in which are most likely to find electron of particular energy Described by WAVEFUNCTION (mathematical equation, ψ ) Schrodinger Equation: H ψ = E ψ – relates Energy to ψ . Quantum Numbers (allowed values in wavefunction for particular E values) – all whole #’s n principal describes size can be 1, 2, 3, 4…. (affects energy) azimuthal describes shape can have values from 0 to n-1 (affects energy) m magnetic describes orientation can have values from – to + if
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