Kenan InceTrumbo, S. T. 2007. Defending young biparentally: female risk-taking with and without a male in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus pustulatus. Behav Ecol Sociobiol. 61:1717-1723.It is hypothesized that natural selection will penalize those burying beetles (Nicrophorus pustulatus) that invest both too much and too little care in their offspring. Stephen T. Trumbo worked on verifying the hypothesis that females defending their nests against attack would fight harder when there was a male with them and thus the possibility of successful defense greater. Trumbo was very careful in setting up his experiment. He was sure to leave constant a 15 L : 9D light-dark cycle, temperature, food, the time fed before trials, age, mean pronotal size of residents/intruders, contents of container the beetles were kept in (mainly soil and a mouse carcass; all carcasses were similar), method of introduction of intruders, parental care (investment) in brood, introduction of intruders during their inactive periods, etc. Trumbo also carefully selected his variables: either the resident female was alone
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