PHYS 1050 final-review

PHYS 1050 final-review - A Sample of Comparative...

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1 A Sample of Comparative Planetology Material The following slides are examples of ways to compare and contrast material presented in text and lecture. They are NOT meant as a comprehensive list of material to be included on the Final Exam. Refer to website Reviews for Exams 1, 2, and 3, Chapter Summary and Review in text, Exams 1, 2, 3, and class notes. Definitions and Facts Measuring distances Radar ranging parallax triangulation angular measurement Celestial Sphere right ascension, declination meridian, zenith, horizon ecliptic, equinoxes, solstices, zodiac constellations Stars and constellations Polaris is “North Star”, appears fixed in night sky, marks the position in the sky of Earth’s rotation axis. The “Big Dipper” is located in Ursa Major. Orion is a prominent constellation in the winter sky. Motion of the Earth rotation cause of day/night from WEST to EAST which causes objects to rise in EAST and set in WEST describe daily motion of stars, Sun, and Moon across sky at different latitudes orbital motion seasonal variation of constellations seasons rotational axis tilted at 23.5 o to ecliptic seasonal variation of Sun’s rising/setting/noon-time position Motion of the Moon orbital motion in eastward direction around Earth with angular speed of 1/2 o per hour lunar phases new, full, first quarter, last quarter, gibbous and crescent (waxing/waning) relationship between lunar phase and rising/setting time rotation rotates once per orbit about Earth: synchronous rotation always see same face of Moon from Earth relationship to tidal forces Solar and Lunar Eclipses cause and geometry shadows cast by the Earth and Moon umbra, penumbra solar eclipses partial, total, annular lunar eclipses partial, total visibility on Earth Planetary Motions and Configurations all planets orbit EASTWARD around the Sun the further from the Sun, the slower the angular speed of the planet describe cause of observed retrograde motion, observed planetary phases define configurations inferior planets superior planets opposition, conjunction, quadrature Planetary Motion and Models of the Solar System retrograde motion models geocentric epicycles and deferents heliocentric historical contributions to understanding of universe Aristarchus Ptolemy Copernicus Galileo Brahe Kepler Newton Forces and Motion mass, inertia, speed, velocity, acceleration Kepler’s 3 Laws of Planetary Motion 1st Law: law of ellipses 2nd Law: law of equal areas 3rd Law: “harmonic” law (P 2 α a 3 ) Ellipses and orbits eccentricity, semi-major axis, aphelion, perihelion Newton’s Laws of Motion and the Law of Gravity
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course PHYS 1050 taught by Professor Lawler during the Spring '08 term at North Texas.

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PHYS 1050 final-review - A Sample of Comparative...

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