LOCAL LITERATURE OF NUMEROUS PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED IN TERMS OF ONLINE CLASS OF THE GRADE 12 HUMSS STU

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LOCAL LITERATURE OF NUMEROUS PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED IN TERMS OFONLINE CLASS OF THE GRADE 12 HUMSS STUDENTS IN SEAITT, ACADEMICYEAR 2020-2021Rapid advances in information and communications technology (ICT) have brought aboutsignificant changes in the field of distance education (DE) since the mid-1990s. These areencapsulated in the shift by many DE institutions from print-based to online delivery usingvirtual learning environments (VLEs) and various Web technologies. This has so altered theorganisation, practices, and cultures of DE (Abrioux, 2001; Bennett, Agostinho, Lockyer &Harper, 2009; Cleveland-Innes, 2010) that DE scholars have characterised it as a generationalshift (see, for example, Taylor, 2001).At the University of the Philippines – Open University (UPOU), a single-mode DE institution inthe Philippines, the term “open and distance e-learning” (ODeL) has been coined to refer to thenew mode of online or Web-based DE. More specifically, ODeL refers to “forms of educationprovision that use contemporary technologies to enable varied combinations of synchronous andasynchronous communication among learners and educators who are physically separated fromone another for part or all of the educational experience" (Alfonso, 2012, n.p.). ODeL expandsthe term “open and distance learning” or ODL to include use of e-learning or online learningmethodologies to enable multiple forms of interaction and dialogue that can bridge the distancebetween teachers and learners (Anderson, 2008c; Calvert, 2005; Garrison, 2009) and provideaccess to a vast array of interactive and multimedia learning resources that can be used to designlearning environments for learners in diverse circumstances (Bates, 2008; Haughey, Evans &Murphy, 2008; Tait, 2010). Using online portals and VLEs further enables DE institutions tosupport both independent learning and collaborative learning through “increasingly complexpedagogical structures” (Haughey et al., 2008, p. 15).Indeed, 21st century DE is distinguished from older forms of DE by flexibility and adaptabilityof design (Garrison, 2000; Haughey et al., 2008; Tait, 2010). While industrial era DE deployed“standardised, normalised and formalised procedures for design and delivery” (Peters, as cited inBurge & Polec, 2008, p. 238), in online DE the boundary between course development andcourse delivery is increasingly blurred and “former course development roles... are beingdeconstructed and reinvented” (Abrioux, 2001, p. 1) as the role of teachers in the design ofpedagogically effective learning environments receives renewed emphasis (Anderson, 2008c;Bennett et al., 2009). Moreover, DE course designs are increasingly “resource-based” (Calvert,2005; Naidu, 2007), and in some cases, “online discussion-based” (Jara & Fitri, 2007), withcourse contents that are “more fluid and dynamic” because they are created during synchronousand asynchronous online collaborative activities (Mason, 1998).

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Term
Spring
Professor
Jane smith
Tags
The Land, E learning, Virtual learning environment, UPOU

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