Practice Exam 1 - Practice Exam 1 The following practice...

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Unformatted text preview: Practice Exam 1 The following practice exam contains multiple choice, true/false, fill in the blank, and a few short answer questions. Not all topics present will appear on the actual exam, nor will topics on the actual exam be limited to those present on this practice exam. If you find that you've answered a question incorrectly take the time to figure out why, as many of the questions were written hoping to target concepts that are commonly misunderstood. If you can't figure out why, or you feel you've found a mistake, please feel free to contact one of us TAs. Best of luck on the exam! Note: Multiple choice questions may have more than one answer, in which case you should choose all correct answers. In any question asking for the "best" description, choose only one answer. 1. Which of the following are morphological classifications for neurons? a. Astrocyte b. Monopolar c. Multipolar d. Dipolar e. Sensory 2. The specific region of a neuron where an action potential is initiated is the _________________. 3. Which of the following men would fondle the bumps on your head if he wanted to get to know you better? a. Albertus Magnus b. Sir Thomas Willis c. Hannibal Lecter d. Franz Joseph Gall e. Galen 4. Which descriptions best fit the function of an interneuron? a. Carries input from the outside world into the nervous system b. Carries info between the internal organs/glands and the nervous system c. Carries info between different neurons d. Assist in coordinating motor output and reflexes e. Affects its own output by sending an axon back onto itself 5. Which of the following factors would result in an increase in the speed that an action potential travels down an axon? a. Larger axon diameter b. Smaller axon diameter c. Presence of myelin d. Absence of myelin 6. ___________________ are the type of glia that form the bloodbrain barrier. 7. ___________________ are the cells that make up central myelin, while ____________________ forms myelin of the peripheral nervous system. 8. Which sequence correctly describes the flow of information from the point where a neuron receives input to where it propagates the information to the next cell in a series? a. Postsynaptic terminal; axon; soma; dendrite; presynaptic terminal b. Postsynaptic terminal ; dendrite; soma; axon; presynaptic terminal c. Presynaptic terminal; dendrite; soma; axon; postsynaptic terminal d. Dendrite; Soma; Axon; postsynaptic terminal; presynaptic terminal e. Axon; Soma; Dendrite; presynaptic terminal; postsynaptic terminal 9. Which of the following are components of the meninges? a. Alma mater b. Pia mater c. Anti mater d. Arachnoid membrane e. Dura mater 10. The basal ganglia play a major role in: a. Motor control b. Memory and emotion c. CSF production d. Auditory functions e. Visual functions 11. The occipital lobe plays a major role in: a. Motor control b. Memory and emotion c. CSF production d. Auditory functions e. Visual functions 12. The temporal lobe plays a major role in: a. Motor control b. Memory and emotion c. CSF production d. Auditory functions e. Visual functions 13. The limbic system plays a major role in: a. Motor control b. Memory and emotion c. CSF production d. Auditory functions e. Visual functions 14. Which of the following imaging techniques allow you to determine activity changes in discrete regions throughout the entire brain? a. EKG b. ECG c. fMRI d. MRI e. PET f. HPLC g. MALDITOF 15. The choroid plexus plays a major role in: a. Motor control b. Memory and emotion c. CSF production d. Auditory functions e. Visual functions 16. Which factors contribute to the resting potential of a neuron? a. Large amount of Ca2+ that is usually inside the cell b. Ionic concentration gradients c. Voltagegated channels d. Leak channels e. Ion pumps 17. The equilibrium potential for an ion is best described as: a. The voltage at which the concentration of the ion is equal on both sides of the cellular membrane b. The voltage measured when no voltagegated channels are open c. The voltage measured when ions diffuse across a membrane at a rate equal to which electrostatic pressure drives them in the opposite direction d. The voltage at which ion pumps are no longer able to move ions against their concentration gradient 18. Which of the following are voltage changes that could be called depolarization (assuming the initial voltage is the resting voltage)? a. From 70 mV to 50 mV b. From 50 mV to 70 mV c. From 70 mV to 50 mV d. From 50 mV to 70 mV 19. Of the possible voltage depolarizations you chose in question #17, which is the most likely to actually occur in a real neuron? ______ (write corresponding letter in blank). 20. During the absolute refractory phase neurons are __________to stimulation because________. a. Unresponsive; voltagegated Na+ channels are inactivated or still open b. Unresponsive; K+ is leaking out of the cell too rapidly c. Less responsive; the membrane is hyperpolarized d. Less responsive; voltagegated Na+ channels are locked or still open e. Hyperresponsive; voltagegated K+ channels are still open 21. The ion channel responsible for the depolarizing phase of the action potential is the ________ channel, and the ion channel responsible for the repolarizing phase is the ________ channel. a. Voltagegated K+ channel / Voltagegated Na+ channel b. Voltagegated Na+channel / Voltagegated Cl channel c. Voltagegated Ca2+ channel / Voltagegated K+ channel d. Voltagegated K+ channel / Voltagegated Cl channel e. Voltagegated Na+channel / Voltagegated K+ channel 22. An ethically challenged research psychologist crashes a wedding then spikes the punch with a novel combination of alcohol, amanita muscaria extract, and expired caviar. He then collects data on how the behavior of the partygoers changes after they consume his concoction. This is an example of what type of behavioral psychology study? a. Correlative b. Somatic Intervention c. Behavioral Intervention d. Family Intervention e. Doubleblind 23. A researcher theorizes that brain size affects mathematical ability so he carries out an experiment where both 1st graders (small brain) and university professors (large brain) take a linear algebra test. He gleefully presents the results he was expecting, and after he is mocked extensively he realizes that he should probably repeat the experiment comparing adult hobbits to adult men. This type of study is? a. Correlative b. Somatic Intervention c. Behavioral Intervention d. Causative e. Cognitive Behavioral 24. The majority of commonly studied synapses in the human body are (electrical / chemical) 25. Electrical synapses are able to convey an impulse from one neuron to the next faster than a chemical synapse because: a. Neurotransmitters can travel directly into the postsynaptic cell instead of activating receptor proteins b. Electrical synapses share a single common membrane that allows ionic flux on one side to instantly cause the same response on the opposite side of the membrane c. Activation of electrical synapses causes ions to be actively pumped across the membrane at a rate faster than possible by simple diffusion alone. d. Electrical current induced in a presynaptic cell can flow directly into the postsynaptic cell thru gap junctions without chemical transduction of the signal e. Electrical signals are able to "jump" across the synaptic cleft. 26. A hyperpolarizing change of the membrane voltage of a postsynaptic neuron caused by the activation of a receptor by a neurotransmitter is known as an __________________ 27. Temporal summation refers to: a. How action potentials that occur closely together in time summate to form larger action potentials b. How EPSPs that occur closely in time add up to form a larger overall PSP. c. How EPSPs that occur closely in proximity summate to form a cumulative PSP. d. When the temporal lobe activates the limbic system in such a way that signals which are normally discrete during wakefulness become long waveforms during sleep. e. How IPSPs that occur closely in time add up to form a more negative overall PSP. 28. The membrane compartments that are packed with neurotransmitters and fuse with the neural membrane during transmitter release are called ____________________. 29. Which of the following is not a manner in which neurotransmitter may be removed from the synaptic cleft? a. Enzymatic degradation b. Diffusion out of the cleft c. Degradation by the postsynaptic receptor d. Reuptake into the presynaptic cell 30. Postsynaptic receptors that directly induce a PSP when they bind a neurotransmitter are ______________ receptors, while receptors that use G proteins or second messengers to induce a PSP (or a multitude of other cellular effects) are _________________ receptors. 31. Basal Nucleus of Meynert is to acetylcholine as locus coeruleus is to ________________. a. NGF b. Glutamate c. Astrotactin d. Norepinephrine e. Dopamine f. Serotonin 32. Folic acid deprivation can disrupt closure of the neural tube during pregnancy. Which of the following are complications commonly associated with this type of defect? a. Spina bifida b. Encephalitis c. Anencephaly d. Hydrocephalus e. Snuffleupagus f. Asperger's Syndrome 33. The precursors of cortical neurons reside in the __________ zone of developing neocortex prior to migrating into the ___________ zone where they differentiate into different types of neurons. a. Internal / end b. Ventricular / marginal c. Intermediate / Ventricular d. Marginal / Ventricular e. Intermediate / Marginal f. End / Twilight 34. During a scuba expedition you find yourself surrounded by a pack of agitated torpedo rays. In a last ditch effort to prevent yourself from falling victim to their "special attack" you set off a chemical grenade. Which of the following substances might actually have a chance of saving you by disabling their "special attack"? a. Tryptophan b. Acetylcholine c. Curare d. GABA e. King Cobra Venom 35. At what point in the human lifespan does the brain have the highest number of neurons? a. Embryonic b. Zygotic c. Birth d. Teenage e. Adult f. Elderly 36. ______________ cells provide the scaffolding upon which neurons migrate to their final cortical destination where they will differentiate during neurodevelopment. a. Microglial b. Pyramidal c. Parallel glial d. Purkinje e. Radial glial 37. BDNF is to cell survival as ____________ protein is to _____________. a. Diablo / apoptosis b. NGF / cell survival c. Diablo / growth cone guidance d. IAPs / cell death e. Pia mater / Brain 38. Which of the following has stages of neurodevelopment arranged in the proper chronological order? a. Cell migration / Neurogenesis / Rearrangement / Synaptogenesis b. Neurogenesis / Cell migration / Differentiation / Synaptogenesis c. Selective cell death / Cell migration / Synaptogenesis / Neurogenesis d. Rearrangement / Neurogenesis / Differentiation / Selective cell death e. Neurogenesis / Differentiation / Rearrangement / Synaptogenesis 39. Which of the following factors influence neuronal differentiation? a. Phenotype b. Genotype c. Available nutrients d. Interactions with cells in the surrounding environment e. Endogenous molecular sieves 40. Dysfunction of elements of the basal ganglia may cause: a. Parkinson's Disease b. Alzheimer's c. Schizophrenia d. Huntington's Disease e. Spina Bifida f. Multiple sclerosis 41. The main excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS is ________________ and the main inhibitory neurotransmitter is _____________. a. Acetylcholine / Glycine b. Glycine / GABA c. Acetylcholine / GABA d. Glutamate / Dopamine e. Glutamate / GABA 42. Serotonin is produced in _________. a. Ventral Tegmental Area b. Substantia Innominata c. Nucleus Basalus d. Raphe Nuclei e. Locus Coeruleus f. Brodmann's Area 17 43. The effectiveness of Ldopa as a treatment for Parkinson's disease often decreases with time since the nervous system "adapts" to the alteration of dopaminergic signaling by changing the number of dopamine receptors on affected postsynaptic membranes. This type of response to a drug is best know as: a. Crosstolerance b. Functional tolerance c. Upregulating Tolerance d. Reverse tolerance e. Metabolic tolerance 44. Neuroleptics a. Are useful for treating schizophrenia b. Are useful for treating depression c. Are classically dopamine receptor antagonists d. Are classically glutamate receptor antagonists e. Aren't even real drugs 45. Activating the sympathetic nervous system: a. Increases heart rate b. Decreases heart rate c. Facilitates digestion d. Inhibits digestion e. Dilates pupils f. Constricts pupils 46. Which of the following are criteria for a substance to be classified as a classical neurotransmitter? a. Substance is only found in neurons b. Substance must be synthesized in presynaptic terminals c. Substance must be synthesized in postsynaptic terminals d. The substance is released when an action potential invades the presynaptic terminal e. There must be receptors for the substance on the target cell's membrane f. Must be peptides g. Must depolarize the target cell's membrane 47. A synaptic terminal may only release one type of neurotransmitter. (True / False) 48. Excitatory neurotransmitters always exert excitatory effects, and inhibitory neurotransmitters always produce inhibitory effects. (True / False) 49. List 5 processes (steps) that occur during neurotransmission which may be targeted by drugs to modulate synaptic signaling. 50. White matter is generally composed of ___________ while grey matter is generally composes of __________. a. Axons / Somas b. Cell bodies / Axons c. Sensory neurons / Motor neurons d. Excitatory neurons / Inhibitory neurons e. Calciumdependent neurons / Carbondependent neurons f. Dendrites / Axons 51. Which of the following are true statements about cranial nerves? a. There are twelve of them. b. The names of the first three start with the letter "O" c. They may only carry one type of information (ie. No single nerve can carry both sensory and motor signals d. None of them leave your head, hence their name "cranial nerves". e. There is one called the olfactory nerve f. There is one called the visual nerve. g. There is one called the glossopharyngeal nerve 52. A gap in myelin along an axon where voltagegated membrane channels are clustered and actively propagate the action potential as it progresses along an axon is known as: a. A gap junction b. A synapse c. A node of Ranvier d. A Plebeian space e. A conjunction junction f. A reticular formation 53. A receptor agonist: a. Always depolarizes a cell membrane b. Always hyperpolarizes a cell membrane c. Prevents a receptor from performing its normal function d. Causes a receptor to perform its normal function e. Causes a receptor to perform a function which is the opposite of its normal function 54. Growth cones a. Crawl about the extracellular environment using filopodia b. Determine which direction to grow based on the localization of certain proteins in the extracellular space c. Attach to specialized glial cells that carry them to their destination d. May become more active when exposed to BDNF e. Are only present prior to birth in humans f. Serve the primary purpose of relocating a neuronal cell body 55. Drugs with which of the following properties would be the least likely to induce side effects and require the lowest dose? a. Lowaffinity b. Highaffinity c. Lowspecificity d. Highspecificity e. Organic 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. How many layers of cortex are there? a. 2 b. 4 c. 3 d. 6 e. 0 (it's homogenous) This area of the brain is responsible for homeostasis and endocrine functions. a. Limbic System b. Thalamus c. Hypothalamus d. Cerebellum This area of the brain modulates breathing and heart rate. a. Medulla b. Midbrain c. Cerebellum d. Basal Ganglia Synchronous neuronal activity located only in the temporal lobe would be a sign of: a. Learning b. An action potential c. Grand Mal seizure d. Petit Mal seizure This amino acid neurotransmitter is an important inhibitor in the spinal cord and retina a. Glycine b. Dopamine c. GABA d. Glutamate LSD mimics which neurotransmitter? a. Dopamine b. Acetycholine c. Norepinephrine d. Serotonin This disease is linked to heavy alcoholism, causes anterograde and retrograde amnesia, and confabulation. It is caused by a thiamine deficiency. a. Multiple Sclerosis b. Epilepsy c. Korsakoff's Disease d. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course NSC 3361 taught by Professor Greenwald during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.

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